3 and 4, below, to briefly summarize another -n, this one occurring in a class of complementizers
in Arabic, which in Classical Arabic are those ending in -nna (inna wa-akhawatuha), namely, inna 'that', anna 'that', and lakinna 'but'.
However, the same combinations of ma 'I' + verbs may also be used without the complementizers
, which shows that the syntactic patterns are leaking.
The functional category consists of the less familiar determiners, tense, and complementizers
Egan describes the classification of the constructions, the findings of earlier studies, complement types and complementizers
, same-time constructions, forward-looking constructions, and backward-looking constructions.
4; Bhatia 1993: 74-75), it is also found in languages of South America (Cubeo in Morse and Maxwell 1999: 174-177; Emerillon in Rose 2003: 490-492; Wari' in Everett and Kern 1997: 97-98), Papuan languages (Golin in Loughnane 2003; Hatam in Reesink 1999: 128 129: Usan in Reesink 1987: 255: Yimas in Foley 1991: 402-403), languages of the Caucasus (Abkhaz in Hewitt 1987: 38-40: Georgian in Hewitt 1987: 27-28), and Chadic languages (Lele in Frajzyngier 2001: 405-409, and more generally Frajzyngier 1991, 1996 on de ditto complementizers
in Chadic and beyond).
The statistics were complemented by data for some typical EA function words, and the comparison showed the same interspeaker distribution as the analyses of the complementizers
, demonstratives, negations, the relative phrase, and pronoun suffixation on verbs and nouns.
Elements from functional categories, such as determiners, complementizers
or AGR, are taken to serve as heads of constructions (= DP, CP, AGR-P, etc.
Both of these complementizers
can be used when the speaker is committed to the truth of the complement proposition.
The former comprise nouns (N), verbs (V), adjectives (A) and (some semantic) prepositions (P), the latter grammatical words such as auxiliaries (AUX), determiners (D), complementizers
(C), pronouns (Pron), and others.
The fact that finite complement clauses can occur in Oriya without a complementizer
of both the preposed Aryan type and the postposed Dravidian type are available and may be used) (pp.
In general, pronominal demonstratives grammaticalize into third person pronouns, relative pronouns, possessive markers, and sometimes into complementizers
, while adnominal demonstratives tend to grammaticalize into definite articles and noun class markers.
4) In addition to the ten features noted by Janda, the following were found to be salient in this study: deleted "that" complementizers
, reflexives, causals, discourse markers, question tags, process statements, contracted negatives, and negative statements transformed into positives.