Reflexivity requires that the conditional relation
hold for each stimulus and an identical one, in the absence of direct training.
This phase began with a block training conditional relation
One can then speak of a conditional relation
between the sample and the comparison.
Correct responses to the conditional relation
S1-R1 are followed by the unique outcome O1, whereas correct responses to the conditional relation
S2-R2 are followed by the unique outcome O2; all incorrect responses are not followed by any outcome and terminate the particular learning trial.
Each 48-trial block comprised three trials for each conditional relation
presented in a semi-random order according to the same criteria previously described in Experiment 1.
The relative influence of the type of conditional relation
alone, however, cannot be discerned from the present experiment.
A second condition was conducted with the same participants, designed to prevent sample-S+ relations in the BC conditional discrimination, so that conditional relations
AB and CD would involve both sample-S+ and sample-S- relations, but conditional relation
BC would involve only sample-S- relations.
The following have been our main findings: (a) because the values on the even if scale are conditional sentences, implicative even if conditionals are truly conditionals: they express a conditional relation
between P and Q; (b) in quite a few cases this relation does not hold between P and the overt Q-clause but rather between P and an implicit Q.
establishing a conditional relation
between dissimilar stimuli) is required for such tests.
One is that the conditional discrimination is only partially formed; another is that behavior is being controlled by some features or relations among the stimuli in the trials other than the conditional relation
between the sample and positive comparison (Iversen, 1993, 1997; Iversen, Sidman, & Carrigan, 1986; McIlvane, Serna, Dube, & Stromer, 2000; McIlvane, Withstandley, & Stoddard, 1984; Sidman, 1992; Stromer & Osborne, 1982; Tomanari, Sidman, Rubio, & Dube, 2006).
In the differential outcomes task condition, each conditional relation
was followed by a unique outcome: Participants consistently received one outcome following correct responses to one conditional relation
and another outcome following correct responses to the other conditional relation
Procedures for assessing and teaching conditional relations
between/among stimuli have been used successfully in basic and applied research on learning, memory, and perception in both general education and special education (Saunders & Spradlin, 1989, 1993).