Once the animals are on a stable SA schedule, the second-order paradigm is introduced with a fixed response rate, so that each time the animal responds, the conditioned stimulus
and the drug infusion are produced, and the rate of responses and intervals is increased (Everitt & Robbins, 2000).
In this case, a change in the circadian context (time of day) in the conditioning day enhances the novelty value of the conditioned stimulus
and its associative strength, which interferes with the effect of taste pre-exposures.
12 On the other hand anti emetics have been found to paradoxically worsen symptoms, perhaps by providing conditioned stimulus
see Razran, 1958, 1961 for a review; Dworkin, 1993) with non-artistic material would suggest that the emotional valence of an unconditioned stimulus (US) following a conditioned stimulus
(CS) is responsible for the emotional valence of the conditioned response (CR) independent of the stimulus modality.
In this kind of paradigm, on the nights when there is no medication, they are getting a conditioned response; on the nights when there is medication, you are reinforcing the capsule as the conditioned stimulus
for that physiologic response.
In the EC procedure, the initial stimulus is termed the conditioned stimulus
(CS) and the second stimulus is labeled the unconditioned stimulus (US).
Researchers created an aversive memory that caused the rats to refuse the conditioned stimulus
In order to deliver a consistent auditory conditioned stimulus
(CS), a 3600-Hz tone was recorded on an Apple[R] iPad apparatus.
A unimodal conditioned stimulus
refers to a discrete cue affecting a single sensory modality such as a tone, a light, or an odor.
The experiment showed that the drool would appear from merely hearing the sound of the bell, which is how Pavlov arrived at the idea that the conditioned stimulus
would stir a conditioned reaction.
According to this paradigm, an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) is paired with a neutral conditioned stimulus
(cue fear conditioning) or with a particular neutral context (contextual fear conditioning).
The association between an odor, as a conditioned stimulus
(CS), and electrical footshock, as an unconditioned stimulus (US), is an effective model to study fear-induced behavior.