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 (kən-found′, kŏn-)
tr.v. con·found·ed, con·found·ing, con·founds
1. To cause to become confused or perplexed. See Synonyms at perplex.
2. To fail to distinguish; mix up: Don't confound fiction and fact.
3. To make (something bad) worse: Do not confound the problem by losing your temper.
4. To cause to be ashamed; abash: an invention that confounded the skeptics.
5. Used in mild curses: Confound you!
a. To frustrate or thwart: trivial demands that confounded the peace talks.
b. Archaic To defeat or overthrow (an enemy).

[Middle English confounden, from Anglo-Norman confundre, from Latin cōnfundere, to mix together, confuse : com-, com- + fundere, to pour; see gheu- in Indo-European roots.]

con·found′er n.
con·found′ing·ly adv.
References in periodicals archive ?
The finding that the association disappears after fully adjusting for genetics and familial confounders in identical twins suggests that "genetics is the main confounder" of the relationship between depression and back pain.
One obvious possible confounder is that males and females often have different operations (e.
A sensitivity analysis determines the magnitude of a potential unmeasured confounder that could erase the observed association or would need to be present to materially alter the conclusions of a study.
The conclusion that nonsedating antihistamines and antibiotics contribute to CRS-related fatigue rests, as noted in the article, on the variable chosen as a control for the confounder of disease symptomatic severity.
That particular confounder was the whole reason the Ranch Hand study could even be done.
If we didn't know where all of this was going from the first frame, ``Kikujiro'' would be an expectation confounder of the first order.
The IDMC asked that the data be unblinded and additional analysis be undertaken to assess whether the observed differences were due to randomization failure, a treatment confounder, or a possible study drug effect.
One possible confounder is what might have preceded the fracture.
Robinson of the department of psychiatry administration at the University of Iowa, Iowa City, proposed that some of the excess mortality among the TBI patients might be attributable to personality--something the study authors cited as a potential confounder (doi:10.
Table 3: Standardized Differences among Confounders by Propensity Score Method Unweighted No Early Early Childhood Childhood Therapy Therapy Standardized Confounder Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Differences * Birth weight (g) 1,030.
Effect of covariates on gastrointestinal pathogen associations * Covariate Pathogens Age Season Gender Vibrio cholerae/rotavirus Confounder Interaction No effect V.