1-4) These injuries have a wide range of severity, from sprains of the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments to complete dislocation of the AC joint.
The static stabilizers of the joint include the acromioclavicular (AC) ligament and coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments.
They were treated with open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture using an anatomically-contoured, low-profile distal clavicle plate and coracoclavicular
ligament augmentation with a coracoclavicular
Vertical stability is provided by the two coracoclavicular
ligaments, the conoid and trapezoid ligaments (Figs.
This article will serve as a review of relevant anatomy, biomechanics, diagnosis, classification, and historical treatment of AC joint injury, with a focus on current surgical techniques of acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular
(CC) ligament reconstruction.
Displaced acromioclavicular (AC) separations (type III or worse) involve disruption of the acromioclavicular ligaments and the coracoclavicular
(CC) ligament complex.
primary fracture line extending behind the origin of the coracoclavicular
ligaments) (1) and the lateral one-third clavicular fracture.
In this cadaveric study, acromioclavicular joint congruity was examined after three methods of coracoclavicular
Laterally, the clavicle attaches to the scapula via the coracoclavicular
ligaments and acromioclavicular ligaments.
13,17) In type I fractures, the coracoclavicular
ligaments are intact.
The acromioclavicular joint (AC) is a diarthrodial joint, stabilized by the coracoclavicular
ligaments (conoid and trapezoid), the superior and inferior AC ligaments, and the AC capsule (Fig.
From a total of 30 diagnosed patients, 16 were identified as receiving nonoperative treatment and 14 open reduction and coracoclavicular