A map of the cosmic background radiation
in the universe
The discoveries are least expected, In the case of cosmic background radiation
, it so happened that Wilson's and Penzias' instrument was sensitive enough to register it.
To best understand how our universe formed and has evolved, different approaches are being used, including measuring the cosmic background radiation
, studying galaxy clusters, and understanding quasars (super massive black holes) and their relation to large-scale structure in the universe.
Cosmic background radiation
has been detected in an era when the universe was only 380-thousand years old.
Galaxy ages were eventually capped near 15 billion years after Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered the cosmic background radiation
Updates to this second edition include new results from the Mars Express orbiter, the Spirit rover, and the Wilkinson Microwave Anistropy Probe on cosmic background radiation
This radiation (of 3 Kelvin) is now known as the cosmic background radiation
and since 1965 it is seen as the big proof of the big bang model.
The Wilkinson Microwave Auisotropy Probe (WMAP), which measures the cosmic background radiation
, is in orbit there.
The energetic light pumped out by these stars is thought to have ionized the hydrogen gas in and around the galaxies, creating "ionization bubbles" millions of light-years across that left a lasting, telltale signature in the cosmic background radiation
A team flying a balloon-borne instrument over Antarctica has tracked yet another type of cosmic background radiation
to its source.
The alternative models are either general worldviews that explain a host of cosmic phenomena, or more focused theories based on the cosmic background radiation
, the Hubble relationship, or new observations of dark matter and dark energy.