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21 Physical Review Letters, delivered an unprecedented 85 percent success rate for what's called counterfactual computation: exploiting quantum mechanics to glean the information a computer would have provided had it run.
But if that is indeed the outcome, at least the left will never again be able to ask their own favourite counterfactual question - whether or not Labour would have won under a more left-wing platform.
Those properties are able to serve as the ground of de re modal truths, it is said, because they bear a special relation to counterfactual conditionals, one of truth-making.
Ignoring this simultaneity in estimation and inference is likely to mislead conclusions and produce flawed counterfactual analyses.
The numerous attempts to do so almost invariably compare futures under climate change to an alternative or counterfactual scenario where global climate change due to human activity is not present.
In the Fall 2014 issue of Contemporary Economic Policy, two Lehigh University economists seek to answer the counterfactual question: What would have happened to the wage gap in Ontario if the act hadn't been passed?
The following section shows how one can use QR to test for heteroskedasticity and to eliminate censored variable bias, while the next section shows how to use QR to create counterfactual distributions of the dependent variable.
A robust approach to market power would require a tight nexus between the challenged conduct and a plausible competitive counterfactual.
This way of seeing things--known in the psych biz as "downward counterfactual thinking"--had swift results: Those who imagined getting lower grades were in better moods immediately afterward than those who imagined getting higher grades; those who pictured a world where they hadn't met Mr.
The team undertook detailed econometric and cost-price analysis aimed at defining product and geographic markets, identifying transaction efficiencies and developing counterfactual scenarios.
Still others, myself among them, remembering that it always takes time for an economy to heal after a financial crisis, and that as usual we don't know the counterfactual, might simply feel that it is impossible to draw strong conclusions.
He finds that deregulated generators reduced the price they paid for coal by 12 percent relative to counterfactual generators in states that continued cost-of-service regulation.