counterinstance

counterinstance

(ˈkaʊntərˌɪnstəns)
n
an instance that refutes a theory
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The minimum requirements are: (1) a demonstration of direct, quantitative measurement of specific client behaviors repeated over time that guided the clinical and/or educational decision making reported in the study; and (2) a contribution to advancing teaching/training/treatment effectiveness by serving as (a) a sources of ideas and hypotheses for further research, (b) a source of developing teaching/training techniques, such as a study of rare phenomenon, (c) a counterinstance for notions that are considered to be universally applicable, or (d) persuasive and motivational (see ETC, 22 (2), for references).
In this light perhaps the tale of John's grandfather is not so transparent or simply a counterinstance that judges John's inadequacies, since John's adult experience may suggest that the legendary aura thrown over the tale in his grandmother's account is less than accurate to the lived reality.
These, obviously, are bold claims: even one counterinstance would falsify Hirsh's sweeping generalizations (although it would not detract from the general importance of his assertions if he is right simply in the aggregate).
Here is a clear falsification of Waltz (in the naive falsification sense of Popper 1959; see Lakatos 1970, 116), but how does Walt deal with this counterevidence or counterinstance, as Lakatos would term it?
Hoyle in fact concluded a recent contribution to the debate by saying: "there is no future in offering instance and counterinstance .
The minimum requirements are: (1) a demonstration of direct, quantitative measurement of specific client behaviors repeated over time that guided the clinical and/or educational decision making reported in the study; and (2) a contribution to advancing teaching/training/treatment effectiveness by serving (a) as a source of ideas and hypotheses for further research, (b) as a source of developing teaching/training/treatment techniques, such as a study of a rare phenomenon, (c) as a counterinstance for notions that are considered to be universally applicable, or (d) as persuausive and motivational (see ETC.
The minimum requirements for a data based case study are: (1) a demonstration of direct, quantitative measurement of specific client behaviors repeated over time that guided the clinical and/or educational decision making reported in the study; and (2) a contribution to advancing teaching/training effectiveness by sewing (a) as a source of ideas and hypotheses for further research, (b) as a source of developing teaching/training/treatment techniques, such as a study of a rare phenomenon, (c) as a counterinstance for notions that are considered to be universally applicable, or (d) as persuasive and motivational (Kazdin, 1998).
Mostly, when total consumption is controlled some comparisons become nonsignificant, but there are 3 counterinstances (in Uruguay, Uganda, and India) where a relationship becomes significant.
24) Each of these counterinstances, therefore, represents for Ibn Sina the exception that proves the rule, for even the impediment impedes in keeping with its essential nature under appropriate causal conditions, while the deliberations and choices of human beings are likewise consistent with their own natures.
He assumes that the fundamental laws are contingent, and shows that some nontrivial, a posteriori, nonbasic laws may nonetheless be necessary in the sense of having no counterinstances in any possible world.
In this context she cites several Tudor references - Richard Mulcaster's Elementarie, Richard Sherry's A Treatise of Schemes and Tropes, and Thomas Wilson's Rule of Reason - to support her view that the Dream "combines proper joining in matrimony and joining in discourse, both subject to laws and rules, with counterinstances of suspect, aberrant, or improper joining" (1996, 90).
s refutation of the odious saw, "`Such as is the end, the life proves so'" (366), against which he urges counterinstances, demonstrating that "all that can be said [of Peter] / Can be but said that `He was good'" (531-32).
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