cranial nerve


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cranial nerve

n.
Any of several nerves that arise in pairs from the brainstem and reach the periphery through openings in the skull. There are 12 such pairs in mammals, birds, and reptiles and usually 10 pairs in amphibians and fish.

cranial nerve

n
(Anatomy) any of the 12 paired nerves that have their origin in the brain and reach the periphery through natural openings in the skull

cra′nial nerve`


n.
any of the paired nerves arising from the brainstem and reaching the periphery through skull openings.
[1830–40]

cranial nerve

Any of the 12 pairs of nerves in humans and other mammals that connect the muscles and sensory organs of the head and upper chest directly to the brain. The cranial nerves include the optic nerve and the auditory nerve.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.cranial nerve - any of the 12 paired nerves that originate in the brain stemcranial nerve - any of the 12 paired nerves that originate in the brain stem
nerve, nervus - any bundle of nerve fibers running to various organs and tissues of the body
first cranial nerve, nervii olfactorii, olfactory nerve - a collective term for numerous olfactory filaments in the nasal mucosa
nervus opticus, optic nerve, optic tract, second cranial nerve - the cranial nerve that serves the retina
nervus oculomotorius, oculomotor, oculomotor nerve, third cranial nerve - supplies extrinsic muscles of the eye
fourth cranial nerve, trochlear, trochlear nerve, trochlearis - either of the two cranial nerves on either side that control the superior oblique muscles of the eyes
fifth cranial nerve, nervus trigeminus, trigeminal, trigeminal nerve, trigeminus - the main sensory nerve of the face and motor nerve for the muscles of mastication
abducens, abducens nerve, abducent, abducent nerve, nervus abducens, sixth cranial nerve - a small motor nerve supplying the lateral rectus muscle of the eye
facial, facial nerve, nervus facialis, seventh cranial nerve - cranial nerve that supplies facial muscles
acoustic nerve, auditory nerve, eighth cranial nerve, nervus vestibulocochlearis, vestibulocochlear nerve - a composite sensory nerve supplying the hair cells of the vestibular organ and the hair cells of the cochlea
glossopharyngeal nerve, nervus glossopharyngeus, ninth cranial nerve - sensory nerve to the pharynx and back of the tongue; motor fibers innervate muscles that elevate the pharynx and larynx; includes parasympathetic fibers to the otic ganglion
nervus vagus, pneumogastric, pneumogastric nerve, tenth cranial nerve, vagus, vagus nerve, wandering nerve - a mixed nerve that supplies the pharynx and larynx and lungs and heart and esophagus and stomach and most of the abdominal viscera
accessory nerve, eleventh cranial nerve, nervus accessorius, spinal accessory - arises from two sets of roots (cranial and spinal) that unite to form the nerve
hypoglossal, hypoglossal nerve, nervus hypoglosus, twelfth cranial nerve - supplies intrinsic muscles of the tongue and other tongue muscles
References in classic literature ?
Sherrington, by experiments on dogs, showed that many of the usual marks of emotion were present in their behaviour even when, by severing the spinal cord in the lower cervical region, the viscera were cut off from all communication with the brain, except that existing through certain cranial nerves.
In a report of 10 patients with breast cancer with metastatic tumor causing cranial nerve palsies in the absence of intracranial tumor, Hall et al (2) found extensive disease at the skull base compressing the nerves; there was no instance of trigeminal ganglion involvement.
However, it should be noted that with large acoustic neuromas, the rates of cranial nerve disability and tumor progression are higher, compared to patients with smaller tumors.
In the head and neck they often present with nonspecific symptoms such as headache, nasal congestion, proptosis, epistaxis, and cranial nerve palsies, reflecting extension to the base of the skull.
The ideal goal of surgery for patients with a jugular foramen tumor is a complete surgical excision with preservation of the lower cranial nerves and major vessels.
Segmental Organization of the Head, Brain, and Cranial Nerves.
None of the patients had a cranial nerve deficit before surgery, and none had received preoperative radiotherapy.
a world renowned authority on cranial nerve disease, Allegheny General Hospital (AGH) has established the region's first Center of Excellence for the study and treatment of cranial nerve and brainstem vascular compression syndromes, a group of debilitating neurological conditions that strike thousands of people each year in the United States.
Because such tumors are situated close to the seventh cranial nerve, the traditional surgery also leaves patients vulnerable to permanent facial paralysis, making it impossible to smile, close one's eyes or activate any movement on the affected side of the face.
Schwannomas in the internal auditory canal usually arise from the vestibular segment of the VIIIth cranial nerve.
a world- renowned neurosurgeon specializing in the treatment of cranial nerve disorders, has joined the Department of Neurosurgery at Allegheny General Hospital (AGH).