cranial nerve


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cranial nerve

n.
Any of several nerves that arise in pairs from the brainstem and reach the periphery through openings in the skull. There are 12 such pairs in mammals, birds, and reptiles and usually 10 pairs in amphibians and fish.

cranial nerve

n
(Anatomy) any of the 12 paired nerves that have their origin in the brain and reach the periphery through natural openings in the skull

cra′nial nerve`


n.
any of the paired nerves arising from the brainstem and reaching the periphery through skull openings.
[1830–40]

cranial nerve

Any of the 12 pairs of nerves in humans and other mammals that connect the muscles and sensory organs of the head and upper chest directly to the brain. The cranial nerves include the optic nerve and the auditory nerve.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.cranial nerve - any of the 12 paired nerves that originate in the brain stemcranial nerve - any of the 12 paired nerves that originate in the brain stem
nerve, nervus - any bundle of nerve fibers running to various organs and tissues of the body
first cranial nerve, nervii olfactorii, olfactory nerve - a collective term for numerous olfactory filaments in the nasal mucosa
nervus opticus, optic nerve, optic tract, second cranial nerve - the cranial nerve that serves the retina
nervus oculomotorius, oculomotor, oculomotor nerve, third cranial nerve - supplies extrinsic muscles of the eye
fourth cranial nerve, trochlear, trochlear nerve, trochlearis - either of the two cranial nerves on either side that control the superior oblique muscles of the eyes
fifth cranial nerve, nervus trigeminus, trigeminal, trigeminal nerve, trigeminus - the main sensory nerve of the face and motor nerve for the muscles of mastication
abducens, abducens nerve, abducent, abducent nerve, nervus abducens, sixth cranial nerve - a small motor nerve supplying the lateral rectus muscle of the eye
facial, facial nerve, nervus facialis, seventh cranial nerve - cranial nerve that supplies facial muscles
acoustic nerve, auditory nerve, eighth cranial nerve, nervus vestibulocochlearis, vestibulocochlear nerve - a composite sensory nerve supplying the hair cells of the vestibular organ and the hair cells of the cochlea
glossopharyngeal nerve, nervus glossopharyngeus, ninth cranial nerve - sensory nerve to the pharynx and back of the tongue; motor fibers innervate muscles that elevate the pharynx and larynx; includes parasympathetic fibers to the otic ganglion
nervus vagus, pneumogastric, pneumogastric nerve, tenth cranial nerve, vagus, vagus nerve, wandering nerve - a mixed nerve that supplies the pharynx and larynx and lungs and heart and esophagus and stomach and most of the abdominal viscera
accessory nerve, eleventh cranial nerve, nervus accessorius, spinal accessory - arises from two sets of roots (cranial and spinal) that unite to form the nerve
hypoglossal, hypoglossal nerve, nervus hypoglosus, twelfth cranial nerve - supplies intrinsic muscles of the tongue and other tongue muscles
References in classic literature ?
Sherrington, by experiments on dogs, showed that many of the usual marks of emotion were present in their behaviour even when, by severing the spinal cord in the lower cervical region, the viscera were cut off from all communication with the brain, except that existing through certain cranial nerves.
A section of cranial nerve IV showed mononuclear lymphocytic infiltrate and mild myelin loss, while sections of the sciatic nerve showed inflammation-associated myelin loss.
Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are primary or secondary muscle dysinnervation disorders arising from congenital developmental anomalies or complete absence of one or multiple cranial nerves.
According to the clinical symptoms and existing MR findings, the case was accepted as lymphomatous involvement of cranial nerves in the MCL.
Contralateral cranial nerve paralysis developed in patient 4 at four months after the first attack (Table 1).
Inflammation spread can lead to meningitis, empyema, brain abscess, venous thrombosis, cranial nerve paralysis and internal carotid artery stenosis (2,3) Time lapse between otological symptoms and cranial nerve dysfunction varies from 1 to 12 weeks.
Patients usually present with headache, auditory or visual deficits, and lower cranial nerve palsies.
Continued optimal glycemic control even during steroid taper normalized the cranial nerve palsy by four weeks with complete resolution of orbital apex lesion after twelve weeks confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging [26].
Subsequently, he presented with multiple cranial nerve palsies (from III to X cranial nerves) and central spastic palsy (bilateral pyramidal tracts involvement), which may suggest a brainstem insult.
Amongst the NPC patients worldwide, the abducens nerve was the most commonly affected by the tumor, and multiple cranial nerve involvement were seen amongst Malaysian patients.
Helius said that the purpose of this study is to demonstrate that cranial nerve non invasive neuromodulation which combines the PoNS device with a unique physiotherapy regiment, may provide new rehabilitative opportunities for patients suffering from chronic symptoms.