He distinguished four major types of scales in the Teleostei: cycloid, ctenoid
(with three subtypes), crenate, and spinoid (ibid.
Body covered in rough ctenoid
scales; head entirely scaled, scales above dorsal opercular opening origin unorganized and very small, scales organized into loose rows on preopercle and opercle, scales on snout, premaxilla, maxilla and lower jaw minute and unorganized.
Diagnosis: Dorsal rays VI-I,13; anal rays 1,14; pectoral rays 18; scales in longitudinal series 51-55; predorsal scales 17-18; 3 scales on upper anterior corner of operculum; cheek fully scaled; pre-pectoral scales present; scales ctenoid
posteriorly, cycloid on head and anterodorsal portion of body; gill rakers 3-5 + 12-15; gill opening extending forward nearly to a vertical at posterior edge of orbit; dorsal fin relatively low, without elongate spines, longest spine 1.
BD BDELLIUM CN CNEMIAL CT CTENOID
KL KLEPTOMANIA KR KRYPTON MN MNEMONIC PN PNEUMONIA PT PTOMAINE TM TMESIS
Burdak (1979) discussed the dynamics of cycloid and ctenoid
scales in squamations of the leaping mullet Liza (= Mugit) saliens (Risso).
They are ctenoid
with the focus positioned posterior to the center of the scale.
, subquadrate with 8-15 primary anterior radii that converge at the focus; radii crenate at scale margin; anterolateral corners square, postero-lateral corners rounded; focus located in posterior half of scale (Daniels 1996).
Maxillary, and mandible covered with small ctenoid
scales but not on branchiostegals.
Scales of head, predorsal region, breast, belly, uppermost part of back and bases of caudal and pectoral fins cycloid, remainder of body scales ctenoid
Dorsal-fin rays 11-12; anal-fin rays 10-12, rarely 12; total caudal-fin rays 42; configuration of caudal-fin rays in all specimens examined: 12 dorsal procurrent caudal rays + 10 segmented dorsal rays + 9 segmented ventral rays + 11 ventral procurrent rays; pectoral-fin rays 12-14; pelvic-fin rays 8; total vertebrae 56-60, modally 59; predorsal vertebrae 15-18; scales ctenoid
, lateral-line scales 57-60, modally 60; predorsal scales 23-25; scales above the lateral-line to dorsal-fin base 5.
The introduction of scanning electron microscopy allowed its use for detailed study of fish scales, such as that by Roberts (1993) on ctenoid
scales of Teleostei, revealing their microstructure and variety.
Scales small for the genus, progressively smaller anteriorly, extending on side of nape to above middle of opercle, but none in median predorsal zone or prepectoral area (if embedded scales are present in these two apparently naked areas, none could be dislodged); scales ctenoid
posteriorly on body, becoming cycloid anterior to origin of second dorsal fin; small cycloid scales present on chest; no scales on fins except basal fourth to fifth of caudal fin.