If the spring supplies a restoring force proportional to its elongation and the dashpot
(electromagnetic damper) provides a force which opposes motion of the mass proportional to its velocity, then the system response is proportional to the excitation, and the system is said to be linear [29, 30].
When the maximal principal network stretch ratio exceeds this value the dashpot
solidifies ([gamma] = [infinity]).
James Clerk Maxwell proposed the spring and dashpot
model to describe viscoelastic behavior of rubber in 1867.
infinity]]--permanent strain (generated in Newtonian dashpot
of viscosity [[eta].
0] and dashpot
with viscosity [mu] in series) and a spring with modulus [E.
, and spring-dashpot
combinations are used to represent superelasticity (SE), the shape memory effect (SME), and the SE-SME combination, respectively.
In addition, the haptic devices were "connected" to the virtual object through a spring dashpot
, detracting from the realism of the contact forces experienced during manipulation.
The SLS model consists of a spring in series with a dashpot
and in parallel with another spring, resulting in three unknown parameters.
The tailhook dashpot
puts positive pressure on the hook to keep it from skipping over the wires on touchdown and had been drained for the up-lock change.
Knoop's early apparatus was commercialized in 1940 but a dashpot
was soon added to slow the indenter (5).
Such a model has many Maxwell elements (spring and dashpot
in series) in parallel.
These products build upon proven in-house technology and the manufacturing expertise used in the dashpot