Very well--then THE rain is DER Regen, if it is simply in the quiescent state of being MENTIONED, without enlargement or discussion--Nominative case; but if this rain is lying around, in a kind of a general way on the ground, it is then definitely located, it is DOING SOMETHING--that is, RESTING (which is one of the German grammar's ideas of doing something), and this throws the rain into the Dative case, and makes it DEM Regen.
For instance, if one is casually referring to a house, HAUS, or a horse, PFERD, or a dog, HUND, he spells these words as I have indicated; but if he is referring to them in the Dative case, he sticks on a foolish and unnecessary E and spells them HAUSE, PFERDE, HUNDE.
The Dative case is but an ornamental folly--it is better to discard it.
We used four kinds of grammatical particles, which represent the syntactic information in Japanese: -ga, a nominative case marker; -ni, a dative case
marker; -o, an accusative case marker; and -to, a coordinator ("and").
Verbal idioms with the Experiencer in the dative case
as in (7a) occur in clauses with a fixed subject that metaphorically points to the Cause of emotion, and a Location expressed by the [+part of the human body] noun, as illustrated in (7b):
The Avar, for example, is able to distinguish formally the Agent, Perceiver/Cognizer and Emoter through the Ergative, Locative and Dative case
frames, respectively (Cerny 1971: 47, 50).
For example, buyer is expressed by nominative case as well as by dative case
without preposition; seller is expressed by genitive case with preposition as well as nominative case.
Functionally, this case encodes movement towards a goal, but not general movement which is encoded by the dative case
2) The more widespread view is that the use of these constructions "is just a matter of idiosyncratic lexical selection" (Fischer 1996a, 251); however, Fischer explains that Callaway is one of the first linguists opposing the identification of to- and bare infinitives establishing "a link between matrix verbs taking dative case
(or a PP) and those taking to-infinitives, and between verbs taking accusative case and the use of bare infinitives, thereby linking the infinitives to the different case-semantics of dative and accusative" (Callaway 1913, 60-71; Fischer 1996a, 251; also Mitchell 1985, [seccion]1549).
This particular affliction of not-knowingness, and therefore of speechlessness, struck all the time: lying on the couch with a boy who, when he stretched his hands above his head revealed underneath the hem of his shirt a belly that struck me as a grown man's belly (to steel myself, I went over Russian noun declensions in my head); walking inhospitable urban sidewalks alone in early evening, bracing myself against the cold wind (ya tebya lyublyu, those are the words for "I love you," I remembered); at dinner with my rambunctious family where I sat silent, teenaged (in Russian, dative case
means passive voice means the subversion of self).
Moreover -features agreement between the Appl and the relevant nominal results in assigning dative Case
to that nominal while -features agreement between the possessor and the functional category D in terms of [N] feature results in assigning genitive Case to the possessor.
The subjects of intransitive verbs always take Nominative or Dative case