Very well--then THE rain is DER Regen, if it is simply in the quiescent state of being MENTIONED, without enlargement or discussion--Nominative case; but if this rain is lying around, in a kind of a general way on the ground, it is then definitely located, it is DOING SOMETHING--that is, RESTING (which is one of the German grammar's ideas of doing something), and this throws the rain into the Dative case, and makes it DEM Regen.
For instance, if one is casually referring to a house, HAUS, or a horse, PFERD, or a dog, HUND, he spells these words as I have indicated; but if he is referring to them in the Dative case, he sticks on a foolish and unnecessary E and spells them HAUSE, PFERDE, HUNDE.
The Dative case is but an ornamental folly--it is better to discard it.
I must once again protest the perpetuation of the false claim of Starke of a contrast between a dative case
for animate nouns and locative case for inanimates in OH (p.
Moreover, the tritransitive Recipient bears adjunct-like marking in (22c) and (23b) instead of the dative case
used for its coding in ditransitives.
Both pearf and dearr were used, albeit rarely, in impersonal constructions, where the logical subject or experiencer was in the dative case
the recognition and correct translation of the "double dative" construction are welcome (ANA KUR URUHatti parhuwanzi uwatteni "you come to attack the land of Hatti"), but the statement that the dative case
"is because of uwa-" is infelicitous.
In this article was shown that the functions most typically associated with dative case
crosslinguistically--the marking of "indirect objects" very often having the thematic roles of Source/Goal, and Beneficiary--are not expressed by a single "case marker" in Jalonke.
However, we would like to argue that whether pro instantiates accusative or otherwise dative Case
cannot mean a serious difference in the case of English since the pro configuration of verbs checking dative Case
has disappeared through time in the language, in a parallel fashion to those checking accusative: see the ungrammaticality of (13) below, whose matrix verbs would subcategorise for dative DPs.
In table 3, selavu `expense(s)', a derived noun from LT cel `go', is inflected for dative case
, the postposition aaka `especially for' and the emphatic clitic taan.
Problems of Latvian influence in Livonian were dealt with also in his book "Lahisukukielten muoto-oppia ja lainasuhteita" (Castrenianumin toimitteita 9, 1974), where Latvian calques and semantic borrowings and influences in the usage of the dative case
in Livonian are studied.
The facts are straightforward: the 1st and 2nd person singular pronouns change their root vowel when inflected for the dative case
([46a], [46b]), but they never do so when inflected for other cases, such as the ablative -D En.