Since the 1990s, following an intensive decollectivization
process at the kibbutzim, the theoretical focus has returned to the failure of communal sharing in voluntary, democratic communes.
Following the success of decollectivization
in agricultural land reform (1), the Chinese government has implement several forest tenure reforms programs to devolve the land-use rights and forest ownership of collective forest areas to individual households.
Reform and opening proceeded through several stages that included agricultural decollectivization
, permission for individuals to start businesses, and privatization of some state-owned industries.
, in turn, liberated even more labor in the countryside, fueling a boom in village enterprises.
Post-Mao reform started gradually in rural and remote provinces, proceeding through decollectivization
, reforms of state and collective enterprises, proletarianization of the peasantry, emergence of an urban labor market, and re-entry into the capitalist world.
1) Chris Miller, "Gorbachev's Agriculture Agenda: Decollectivization
and the Politics of Perestroika," Kritika 17, 1 (2016): 95-118.
272-91; Vivian Frings, 'Cambodia after decollectivization
(1989-1992)', Journal of Contemporary Asia 24, 1 (1994): 49-66; Alexander L.
Changing Rules of the Game: Local Responses to Decollectivization
in Thai Nguyen, Viet Nam".
While political reform was absent in Vietnam, it has been suggested that the memory of the upheavals of collectivization motivated the central government to take a more equitable approach to decollectivization
with positive consequences for poverty and growth (Ravillion and Van de Walle 2008).
27) The third category of employees, those belonging to the commuter population, were allowed to go back to their rural villages, being protected by the use-rights of households to land provided them in the course of decollectivization
The first and the main process that happened in the Romanian agriculture after 1989, was decollectivization
and privatization of the agriculture, representing the essential conditions in order to change the types and forms of property, the organization of agricultural production and of the entire agricultural system (Popescu, 2001: 46).
of agriculture was followed by the expansion of off-farm rural industrial employment in Township and Village enterprises in the mid-1980s.