Horticultural vinegar, with an acetic acid concentration of 10 to 20 percent (stronger than household vinegar, at 5 percent), is often used for making defoliants
for controlling weeds, including poison ivy.
As a part of the war in Vietnam, the United States military sprayed millions of gallons of herbicides and defoliants
between 1962 and 1971 under Operation Ranch Hand.
Like Hung Duc, Khanh is believed to be a victim of Operation Ranch Hand, the United States military's effort during the Vietnam War to deprive the enemy of cover and food by spraying defoliants
Like Mr Hung Duc, Ms Khanh is believed to be a victim of Operation Ranch Hand, the United States military's effort during the Vietnam War to deprive the enemy of cover and food by spraying defoliants
Soil pollution results from DDT, a pesticide, and from toxic defoliants
used in the production of cotton.
During the Vietnam War, between 1962 and 1971, the US military sprayed nearly 20 million gallons of material containing chemical herbicides and defoliants
mixed with jet fuel over parts of Vietnam, eastern Laos and Cambodia.
These facts, unprecedented in history, remain: More than 19 million gallons of defoliants
were dropped all over Vietnam by the US forces, and almost seven million tons of bombs were dropped in Indochina.
Hixson and Alexander Bloom, addresses how the war shaped American national identity and in turn foreign policy; the second, in chapters by Diane Niblack Fox and Charles Waugh, examines the environmental legacy of a war in which American forces engaged in the most relentless aerial bombardment in world history and deployed massive quantities of chemical defoliants
that poisoned the landscape.
Not only do chemical defoliants
such as 2,4-D cause acute illness, they disrupt hormones needed for normal operation of the thyroid gland, kidneys, ovaries and testes.
However, some people might not realise that Canada itself was a major producer of chemical weapons and defoliants
in the 20th century.
Swansea-born Jon Mitchell, pictured, has made allegations on Japanese TV and in publications including the Japan Times that defoliants
including Agent Orange were buried in Okinawa following the conflict and that they continue to pose a massive threat to health.
Air Force sprayed the country's jungles with defoliants
to eliminate hiding places for the Viet Cong.