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Noun1.denotatum - an actual object referred to by a linguistic expression
referent - something referred to; the object of a reference
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In both cases the speaker "uglifies the beautiful," to wit, opts for phrases with connotations that are offensive either about the denotatum and/or to those addressed.
According to Allan and Burridge, there are basically two ways in which taboo and the consequent censoring of language lead to the creation of new euphemistic expressions: one, a changed form for the tabooed expression, and two, figurative language sparked by perceptions of and conceptions about the denotatum (e.
Note in this respect that (a) per definitionem, words (word forms) have independent denotata; (b) however, independent denotata are not necessarily individual denotata, that is, 'things'; (c) if a denotatum is not individual, the corresponding word will tend to have an irregular morphological paradigm.
A term or symbol can have a denotatum but it need not.
The classifier will rarely play the role of denotatum for the class itself.
Non-punctuality of the infinitive denotatum is marked, as in (17a), with a non-infinitive construction:
28) Arnott (2007: 14) treats the Indian Sturnidae as the denotatum of the Greek bird-name Anak[e.
The term President Barack Obama carries the meaning of the person elected to the top office in the USA, with all the powers and responsibilities that accompany that significant role and has the denotatum of the specific male human being who can be observed in person, who was born August 4, 1961, and who in 2010 is serving in the capacity of the 44th President of the United States and the first African American to hold this office.
The answer in both cases is the same; or, if we prefer to put it this way, the denotation of '(be) a crook' is the intension of the class whose extension is the denotatum of 'crook'.
1), the occurrence of the FP in the object position of the copula is naturally interpreted as a signal that its denotatum has a focus relation to the proposition in which it plays a semantic argument role, that is, the RC proposition.
Clearly, where no clause is present, as in inferentials and expletive nominal clauses, the denotatum of the focal constituent must be relevant in the local nonlinguistic context.
The former are presumably part of the onomasticon of all speakers who know them, the latter (in relation to some agreed denotatum, of course), only of some speakers, or of all speakers on some occasions of usage -- in which last case it is not fully onomasticized for them, and the onomasticon, construed as a list of expressions, cannot be fully determinate.