Of these 800 or so chemicals, lead-containing consumer products have been consistently targeted since its listing as a chemical that is known to cause developmental toxicity
in males and females in February 1987.
Associated hazards include: acute toxicity (acute lethality at high concentrations only), blood toxicity, immunotoxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, liver toxicity, kidney toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity
, and neurotoxicity.
An example of the concept is ES1: Here the main question is whether a new AOP for developmental toxicity
can be defined on the basis of gap junction changes induced by toxicants, and whether such a key event (KE) would be beneficial for a KE-based test battery.
Heavy metals including Cr are being involved in developmental toxicity
besides general toxicity (Domingo, 1994).
Consistent with these considerations, both OECD and NTP have introduced new guidelines for reproductive and developmental toxicity
with more functional end points to assess how agents affect the reproductive and endocrine status of animals (NTP 2011a; OECD 2011).
Included are embryogenesis, developmental genetics, mechanisms of teratogenicity, and testing for reproductive and developmental toxicity
There are no human pregnancy data for these two combination products but, based on animal data, they can be classified as low risk (no developmental toxicity
in two or more animal species).
Studies done with zebrafish--an animal model that closely resembles human reaction to toxic chemicals--showed developmental toxicity
They discuss such topics as registering, evaluating, authorizing, and restricting (REACH) environmental chemicals, early embryo development and bipotential gonad formation, assessing the reproductive health of men with occupational exposures, molecular structural characteristics that influence partitioning of xenobiotics into human breast milk, and adverse outcome pathways for developmental toxicity
In CD rats, the LOEL for developmental toxicity
is 1000 mg [kg.
The researchers chose drug cardiac developmental toxicity
screening to demonstrate a clinically relevant application of the cardiac microchambers.
Doctoral level subject matter experts (SMEs) in endocrine disruption, ecotoxicity, developmental toxicity
, genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and quantitative structure activity relationships make up the 2 branches of the Portfolio (Toxicity Evaluation Program; Health Effects Research Program).