The essays include Fishman's thoughts on the birth of American sociolinguistics, similarities and differences between diglossia
and societal multilingualism, the process of reversing language shift and its failures and successes, considering such factors as geography in studies of language revitalization, problems in the study of language maintenance and language shift, results of studies in Australia of immigrant and Aboriginal languages, the myth of "English only," ethnolinguistic democracy, endangered languages, and Yiddish in the context of the "holy language.
L'inglese non consente infatti di rendere la diglossia
di cui il protagonista, con piena coscienza ("I speak in correct Italian too, when it's the right time, when talking in Italian is necessary" 37), si serve, portando cosi in scena l'alternanza tra italiano e dialetto propria delle persone di una certa eta che hanno ancora nel romagnolo la propria lingua madre e che riservano l'italiano solo alle conversazioni con persone piu dotte o comunque a temi e situazioni che richiedono una maggiore dose di formalita.
The text includes central articles providing general introductions to the field on topics such as syntax, morphology, diglossia
, and multilingualism; longer essays on topics such as language and culture, language and ethnicity, language and nationalism; and entries of a more technical nature, e.
In Iraq as in much of the modern Middle East, Arabic in its various manifestations continues to provide us with the textbook example of diglossia
, but diglossia
is hardly a recent phenomenon in Iraq.
Mendenhall claims that diglossia
"is attested not only at Late Bronze Ugarit, but has also become increasingly in evidence from pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions" (p.
Will any reader understand what diglossia
is all about by reading the auther's explanatory follow-up "sevwral European and non-European languages share such characteristics"?
One has no choice but to assume a diglossia
among the Brabmans throughout the first millennium b.
This phenomenon, which has been termed diglossia
, is attested not only at Late Bronze Ugarit, but has also become increasingly in evidence from pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions.
In South Asian languages: Structure, Convergence, and Diglossia
58-95), comments on the nature of Arabic diglossia
, much better understood as a linguistic continuum (see my "Formal vs.
The issue of diglossia
is important and, I think, has been too little addressed in the entire study of early Chinese.
At the very outset, the reader is told that Arabic is, in essence, two languages (or dialects), which have been characterized from the beginning by the dichotomy between a standard and a vernacular (the so-called diglossia
, in reality multiglossia, better known today as a linguistic continuum).