Role of pollinators in the evolution of dioecy
and herbivory: the effect of growth rate on plant defense in Acer negundo.
The evolution of hermaphroditism from dioecy
in crustaceans: selfing hermaphroditism described in a fourth spinicaudatan genus.
Reproductive system of organism: Dioecy
with random mating; 3.
Nevertheless, its wide distribution contrasts with dioecy
, requiring pollen transfer between different individuals and is generally associated with rarer woody plants, typical of late stages of succession (Ackerly, Rankin-De-Merona, & Rodrigues 1990; Ibarra-Manriquez & Oyama 1992, Oliveira-Filho & Ratter, 1995).
and moth pollination in Cabralea canjerana subsp.
05), providing evidence for facultative protandric dioecy
Evolution of dioecy
in Echinocereus coccineus: relative influence of pollinators, resources and elevation over multiple spatial scales.
1997) suggesting a polyphyletic origin of dioecy
during the evolution of the angiosperms.
The South American radiation of Lepechinia (Lamiaceae): phylogenetics, divergence times and evolution of dioecy
These results indicate a high level of heterozygosity, which can be related to the plant's dioecy
and to the low level of selection in papaya in Kenya.
In similar lines, Bir Bahadur (1968) documented three types of flower sex in the members of Rubiaceae--heterostyly, dioecy
and hermaphroditic or gynodioecy.