dip

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dip

 (dĭp)
v. dipped, dip·ping, dips
v.tr.
1. To plunge briefly into a liquid, as in order to wet, coat, or saturate.
2. To color or dye by immersing: dip Easter eggs.
3. To immerse (a sheep or other animal) in a disinfectant solution.
4. To form (a candle) by repeatedly immersing a wick in melted wax or tallow.
5. To galvanize or plate (metal) by immersion.
6. To scoop up by plunging the hand or a receptacle below the surface, as of a liquid; ladle: dip water out of a bucket.
7. To lower and raise (a flag) in salute.
8. To lower or drop (something) suddenly: dipped my head to avoid the branch.
9. Slang To pick the pockets of.
v.intr.
1. To plunge into water or other liquid and come out quickly.
2. To plunge the hand or a receptacle into liquid or a container, especially so as to take something up or out: I dipped into my pocket for some coins.
3. To withdraw a small amount from a fund: We dipped into our savings.
4. To drop down or sink out of sight suddenly: The sun dipped below the horizon.
5. To drop suddenly before climbing. Used of an aircraft.
6. To slope downward; decline: The road dipped.
7. To decline slightly and usually temporarily: Sales dipped after Christmas.
8. Geology To lie at an angle to the horizontal plane, as a rock stratum or vein.
9.
a. To read here and there at random; browse: dipping into Chaucer.
b. To investigate a subject superficially; dabble: dipped into psychology.
10. Slang To steal by picking pockets.
11. To place a preparation of finely shredded tobacco in one's mouth.
n.
1. A brief plunge or immersion, especially a quick swim.
2. A liquid into which something is dipped, as for dyeing or disinfecting.
3. A savory creamy mixture into which crackers, raw vegetables, or other foods may be dipped.
4. An amount taken up by dipping.
5. A container for dipping.
6. A candle made by repeated dipping in tallow or wax.
7. A downward slope; a decline.
8. A sharp downward course; a drop: a dip in prices.
9. Geology The downward inclination of a rock stratum or vein in reference to the plane of the horizon.
10.
a. Linguistics A part of a phrase or sentence that is unstressed or less strongly stressed relative to surrounding words, as the words I and to in I have to go.
b. The unstressed portion of a metrical foot.
11. Magnetic dip.
12. A hollow or depression.
13. Sports A gymnastic exercise on the parallel bars in which the body is lowered by bending the elbows until the chin reaches the level of the bars and then is raised by straightening the arms.
14. Slang A pickpocket.
15. Slang A foolish or stupid person.
16. A preparation of finely shredded tobacco, usually placed between the lower lip and gum. Also called snuff.

[Middle English dippen, from Old English dyppan; see dheub- in Indo-European roots. N., sense 15, back-formation from dippy.]

dip

(dɪp)
vb, dips, dipping or dipped
1. to plunge or be plunged quickly or briefly into a liquid, esp to wet or coat
2. (intr) to undergo a slight decline, esp temporarily: sales dipped in November.
3. (intr) to slope downwards: the land dips towards the river.
4. (intr) to sink or appear to sink quickly: the sun dipped below the horizon.
5. (Automotive Engineering) (tr) to switch (car headlights) from the main to the lower beam. US and Canadian word: dim
6. (Agriculture) (tr)
a. to immerse (poultry, sheep, etc) briefly in a liquid chemical to rid them of or prevent infestation by insects, etc
b. to immerse (grain, vegetables, or wood) in a preservative liquid
7. (Dyeing) (tr) to stain or dye by immersing in a liquid
8. (Ecclesiastical Terms) (tr) to baptize (someone) by immersion
9. (Metallurgy) (tr) to plate or galvanize (a metal, etc) by immersion in an electrolyte or electrolytic cell
10. (tr) to scoop up (a liquid or something from a liquid) in the hands or in a container
11. to lower or be lowered briefly: she dipped her knee in a curtsy.
12. (Crafts) (tr) to make (a candle) by plunging the wick into melted wax
13. (intr) to plunge a container, the hands, etc, into something, esp to obtain or retrieve an object: he dipped in his pocket for money.
14. (intr; foll by in or into) to dabble (in); play (at): he dipped into black magic.
15. (Aeronautics) (intr) (of an aircraft) to drop suddenly and then regain height
16. (Geological Science) (intr) (of a rock stratum or mineral vein) to slope downwards from the horizontal
17. (Games, other than specified) (often foll by: for) (in children's games) to select a leader, etc by reciting any of various rhymes
18. (tr) slang to pick (a person's) pocket
n
19. the act of dipping or state of being dipped
20. a brief swim in water
21. (Agriculture)
a. any liquid chemical preparation in which poultry, sheep, etc are dipped
b. any liquid preservative into which objects, esp of wood, are dipped
22. (Dyeing) a preparation of dyeing agents into which fabric is immersed
23. (Physical Geography) a depression, esp in a landscape
24. something taken up by dipping
25. a container used for dipping; dipper
26. a momentary sinking down
27. (Geological Science) the angle of slope of rock strata, fault planes, etc, from the horizontal plane
28. (General Physics) Also called: angle of dip, magnetic dip or inclination the angle between the direction of the earth's magnetic field and the plane of the horizon; the angle that a magnetic needle free to swing in a vertical plane makes with the horizontal
29. (Cookery) a creamy mixture into which pieces of food are dipped before being eaten
30. (Surveying) surveying the angular distance of the horizon below the plane of observation
31. (Crafts) a candle made by plunging a wick repeatedly into wax
32. (Aeronautics) a momentary loss of altitude when flying
33. (Gymnastics) (in gymnastics) a chinning exercise on the parallel bars
34. a slang word for pickpocket
[Old English dyppan; related to Old High German tupfen to wash, German taufen to baptize; see deep]

dip1

(dɪp)

v. dipped, dip•ping,
n. v.t.
1. to plunge temporarily into a liquid, so as to moisten, dye, or take up some of the liquid.
2. to take up by bailing or ladling: to dip water out of a boat.
3. to lower and raise: to dip a flag in salutation.
4. to immerse in a solution containing an insecticide or pesticide.
5. to make (a candle) by repeatedly plunging a wick into melted tallow or wax.
6. Chiefly Brit. to lower (headlights); dim.
v.i.
7. to plunge into a liquid and emerge quickly.
8. to reach down into a liquid or container so as to remove something (usu. fol. by into).
9. to withdraw something in small amounts: to dip into one's savings.
10. to sink: The sun dipped below the horizon.
11. to incline downward: The road dips into a valley.
12. to decrease slightly or temporarily: Stock-market prices often dip on Fridays.
13. to engage slightly in a subject: to dip into astronomy.
14. to read here and there in a book or author's work (often fol. by into).
n.
15. the act of dipping.
16. something taken up by dipping.
17. a scoop of ice cream.
18. a substance into which something is dipped.
19. a creamy mixture of seasoned foods for scooping with a cracker, potato chip, etc., served as an appetizer.
20. a solution containing an insecticide or pesticide for use in dipping animals.
21. a momentary lowering.
22. a moderate or temporary decrease.
23. a downward inclination, slope, or course.
24. the amount of this.
25. a hollow or depression in the land.
26. a brief swim.
27. the downward inclination of a mineral vein or stratum with reference to the horizontal.
28. the angle that a freely rotating magnetic needle makes with the plane of the horizon.
29. a short downward plunge, as of an airplane.
30. Slang. pickpocket.
[before 1000; Middle English dippen (v.), Old English dyppan]
dip′pa•ble, adj.
syn: dip, immerse, plunge refer to putting something into liquid. To dip is to put down into a liquid quickly or partially and lift out again: to dip a finger into water to test the temperature. immerse denotes a lowering into a liquid until covered by it: to immerse meat in salt water. plunge adds a suggestion of force or suddenness to the action of dipping: to plunge a lobster into boiling water.

dip3

(dɪp)

n. Slang.
a naive, foolish, or obnoxious person.
[1930–35, Amer.; probably back formation from dippy]

dip

In naval mine warfare, the amount by which a moored mine is carried beneath its set depth by a current or tidal stream acting on the mine casing and mooring.

dip


Past participle: dipped
Gerund: dipping

Imperative
dip
dip
Present
I dip
you dip
he/she/it dips
we dip
you dip
they dip
Preterite
I dipped
you dipped
he/she/it dipped
we dipped
you dipped
they dipped
Present Continuous
I am dipping
you are dipping
he/she/it is dipping
we are dipping
you are dipping
they are dipping
Present Perfect
I have dipped
you have dipped
he/she/it has dipped
we have dipped
you have dipped
they have dipped
Past Continuous
I was dipping
you were dipping
he/she/it was dipping
we were dipping
you were dipping
they were dipping
Past Perfect
I had dipped
you had dipped
he/she/it had dipped
we had dipped
you had dipped
they had dipped
Future
I will dip
you will dip
he/she/it will dip
we will dip
you will dip
they will dip
Future Perfect
I will have dipped
you will have dipped
he/she/it will have dipped
we will have dipped
you will have dipped
they will have dipped
Future Continuous
I will be dipping
you will be dipping
he/she/it will be dipping
we will be dipping
you will be dipping
they will be dipping
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been dipping
you have been dipping
he/she/it has been dipping
we have been dipping
you have been dipping
they have been dipping
Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been dipping
you will have been dipping
he/she/it will have been dipping
we will have been dipping
you will have been dipping
they will have been dipping
Past Perfect Continuous
I had been dipping
you had been dipping
he/she/it had been dipping
we had been dipping
you had been dipping
they had been dipping
Conditional
I would dip
you would dip
he/she/it would dip
we would dip
you would dip
they would dip
Past Conditional
I would have dipped
you would have dipped
he/she/it would have dipped
we would have dipped
you would have dipped
they would have dipped
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.dip - a depression in an otherwise level surfacedip - a depression in an otherwise level surface; "there was a dip in the road"
imprint, impression, depression - a concavity in a surface produced by pressing; "he left the impression of his fingers in the soft mud"
2.dip - (physics) the angle that a magnetic needle makes with the plane of the horizondip - (physics) the angle that a magnetic needle makes with the plane of the horizon
natural philosophy, physics - the science of matter and energy and their interactions; "his favorite subject was physics"
angle - the space between two lines or planes that intersect; the inclination of one line to another; measured in degrees or radians
3.dip - a thief who steals from the pockets or purses of others in public placesdip - a thief who steals from the pockets or purses of others in public places
stealer, thief - a criminal who takes property belonging to someone else with the intention of keeping it or selling it
4.dip - tasty mixture or liquid into which bite-sized foods are dipped
bean dip - a dip made of cooked beans
cheese dip - a dip made of cheeses
clam dip - a dip made of clams and soft cream cheese
guacamole - a dip made of mashed avocado mixed with chopped onions and other seasonings
condiment - a preparation (a sauce or relish or spice) to enhance flavor or enjoyment; "mustard and ketchup are condiments"
5.dip - a brief immersion
immersion, submergence, submerging, submersion - sinking until covered completely with water
6.dip - a sudden sharp decrease in some quantity; "a drop of 57 points on the Dow Jones index"; "there was a drop in pressure in the pulmonary artery"; "a dip in prices"; "when that became known the price of their stock went into free fall"
decrement, decrease - the amount by which something decreases
correction - a drop in stock market activity or stock prices following a period of increases; "market runups are invariably followed by a correction"
voltage drop - a decrease in voltage along a conductor through which current is flowing
7.dip - a candle that is made by repeated dipping in a pool of wax or tallow
candle, wax light, taper - stick of wax with a wick in the middle
8.dip - a brief swim in waterdip - a brief swim in water    
swim, swimming - the act of swimming; "it was the swimming they enjoyed most": "they took a short swim in the pool"
9.dip - a gymnastic exercise on the parallel bars in which the body is lowered and raised by bending and straightening the arms
gymnastic exercise - (gymnastics) an exercise designed to develop and display strength and agility and balance (usually performed with or on some gymnastic apparatus)
Verb1.dip - immerse briefly into a liquid so as to wet, coat, or saturate; "dip the garment into the cleaning solution"; "dip the brush into the paint"
sop - dip into liquid; "sop bread into the sauce"
immerse, plunge - thrust or throw into; "Immerse yourself in hot water"
douse, duck, dip - dip into a liquid; "He dipped into the pool"
dabble - dip a foot or hand briefly into a liquid
2.dip - dip into a liquid while eating; "She dunked the piece of bread in the sauce"
eat - take in solid food; "She was eating a banana"; "What did you eat for dinner last night?"
3.dip - go down momentarily; "Prices dipped"
wane, go down, decline - grow smaller; "Interest in the project waned"
4.dip - stain an object by immersing it in a liquid
stain - color with a liquid dye or tint; "Stain this table a beautiful walnut color"; "people knew how to stain glass a beautiful blue in the middle ages"
5.dip - take a small amount from; "I had to dip into my savings to buy him this present"
draw off, take out, withdraw, draw - remove (a commodity) from (a supply source); "She drew $2,000 from the account"; "The doctors drew medical supplies from the hospital's emergency bank"
6.dip - switch (a car's headlights) from a higher to a lower beam
change intensity - increase or decrease in intensity
7.dip - lower briefly; "She dipped her knee"
bring down, let down, lower, take down, get down - move something or somebody to a lower position; "take down the vase from the shelf"
8.dip - appear to move downward; "The sun dipped below the horizon"; "The setting sun sank below the tree line"
subside - sink to a lower level or form a depression; "the valleys subside"
decline - go down; "The roof declines here"
9.dip - slope downwards; "Our property dips towards the river"
slope, incline, pitch - be at an angle; "The terrain sloped down"
10.dip - dip into a liquid; "He dipped into the pool"
dip, dunk, souse, douse, plunge - immerse briefly into a liquid so as to wet, coat, or saturate; "dip the garment into the cleaning solution"; "dip the brush into the paint"
11.dip - place (candle wicks) into hot, liquid wax
12.dip - immerse in a disinfectant solution; "dip the sheep"
immerse, plunge - thrust or throw into; "Immerse yourself in hot water"
13.dip - plunge (one's hand or a receptacle) into a container; "He dipped into his pocket"
immerse, plunge - thrust or throw into; "Immerse yourself in hot water"
14.dip - scoop up by plunging one's hand or a ladle below the surface; "dip water out of a container"
lift out, scoop, scoop up, scoop out, take up - take out or up with or as if with a scoop; "scoop the sugar out of the container"

dip

verb
1. plunge, immerse, bathe, duck, rinse, douse, dunk, souse Dip the food into the sauce.
2. drop (down), set, fall, lower, disappear, sink, fade, slump, descend, tilt, subside, sag, droop The sun dipped below the horizon.
3. slope, drop (down), descend, fall, decline, pitch, sink, incline, drop away a path which suddenly dips down into a tunnel
4. drop, fall, lower, decline, sink, dive, diminish, tumble, descend Unemployment dipped to 6.9 per cent last month.
5. dim, dull, turn down, darken, bedim He dipped the headlights of his car.
noun
1. plunge, ducking, soaking, drenching, immersion, douche, submersion Freshen the salad leaves with a quick dip into cold water.
2. nod, drop, lowering, slump, sag She acknowledged me with a slight dip of the head.
3. hollow, hole, depression, pit, basin, dent, trough, indentation, concavity Turn right where the road makes a dip.
5. drop, cut, reduction, lowering, decline, slump, decrease, fall-off, downturn the current dip in farm spending
6. sauce, dressing, relish prawns with avocado dip
7. bathe, swim, plunge, dive, splash, paddle Let's have a dip in the pool.
dip into something
1. sample, try, skim, play at, glance at, run over, browse, dabble, peruse a chance to dip into a wide selection of books
2. draw upon, use, employ, extract, take from, make use of, fall back on, reach into, have recourse to She was forced to dip into her savings.

dip

verb
1. To plunge briefly in or into a liquid:
2. To immerse in a coloring solution:
3. To take a substance, as liquid, from a container by plunging the hand or a utensil into it:
bail, lade, ladle, scoop (up).
4. To slope downward:
phrasal verb
dip into
To look through reading matter casually:
browse, flip through, glance at (or over) (or through), leaf (through), riffle (through), run through, scan, skim, thumb (through).
noun
1. The act of swimming:
2. A usually swift downward trend, as in prices:
3. An area sunk below its surroundings:
4. Slang. One deficient in judgment and good sense:
Informal: dope, gander, goose.
Translations
صَلْصَةغَطْسَهغِماس، طعام تُغْمَس فيه اللقْمَهفَجْوَه، تَجْويف، حُفْرَهيُخْفِضُ الضَّوْء العالي في السَّيّارَه
namočitomáčkapomazánkaponořitpozdravit
dyppedipdukkertgå nedadhulning
kastaakylpypainaumapulahdusdipata
umakumočiti
horpadásleveszi a fénytmegmártózászászlóval üdvözöl
dÿfadÿfa íhallaídÿfalækka ljósin
ちょっと浸すディップソース
(...을 ...에) 잠깐 담그다
imti išišsimaudymasmurktelėjimaspadažaspamerkti
ātra izpeldēšanāsiegremdētiemērktizslēgt tālās gaismaskritums
ovlaženie
pomočitizasenčiti
doppdoppanedsänkning
การจิ้มน้ำจิ้มจุ่ม
daldırmakdaldırye sosdalıp çıkmaezmekısa farları yakmak
nhúngnước chấm

dip

[dɪp]
A. N
1. (= swim) → baño m, chapuzón m, zambullida f (LAm)
to go for a dipir a darse un baño or un chapuzón
2. (= slope) → declive m, pendiente f; (= hollow) → hondonada f, depresión f
3. (Geol) [of rock strata, fault] → inclinación f
angle of dipbuzamiento m, angulo m de inclinación
magnetic dipinclinación f (magnética)
4. (Culin) → salsa f (para mojar)
5. (Agr) (for sheep, poultry) → baño m de desinfección
see lucky B
B. VT
1. (= thrust) (into liquid) → sumergir, bañar (in, into en) [+ pen] → mojar (in, into en) [+ hand] (into bag) → meter (in, into en) [+ ladle, scoop] → meter (in, into en) [+ sheep] → bañar con desinfectante
2. (= lower) [+ flag] → bajar, saludar con (Aer) [+ wings] → saludar con
to dip one's (head)lights (Brit) → poner las luces cortas or de cruce, poner las luces bajas (LAm)
dipped headlightsluces fpl cortas or de cruce, luces fpl bajas (LAm)
C. VI
1. (= slope down) [road] → bajar en pendiente; [land] → formar una hondonada
2. (= move down) [bird, plane] → bajar en picado; [temperature] → bajar; [sun] → esconderse
the sun dipped below the hillel sol se escondió tras la colina
3. (= draw on) to dip into one's savings (fig) → echar mano de los ahorros
4. (= read superficially) to dip into a bookhojear un libro
D. CPD dip switch N (Aut) → interruptor m de las luces cortas or de cruce, interruptor m de las luces bajas (LAm)

dip

[ˈdɪp]
n
(in road)déclivité f
(= reduction) → baisse f
(= swim) → baignade f, bain m
to go for a dip, to take a dip → aller se baigner
(to eat with crisps, celery sticks etc) sauce ou pâte préparée pour y tremper des chips ou des crudités, généralement servie lors de soirées ou de réceptions
vt
to dip sth into sth [+ bread, biscuit] → tremper qch dans qch
He dipped a biscuit into his tea → Il a trempé un biscuit dans son thé.; [+ spoon, finger, hand] → plonger qch dans qch
(British) [+ headlights] → mettre en code, baisser
vi
(= go down) [rate, level] → chuter
to dip to [+ level] → baisser jusqu'à
(= descend) → descendre
to dip below → descendre à
to dip down → descendre dans
(= tip) → pencher
dip into
vt fus
[+ container] → plonger sa main dans
[+ book] → parcourir
[+ savings] → puiser dans

dip

vt
in +acc) (into liquid) → tauchen; pen, hand, brush(ein)tauchen; bread(ein)tunken, stippen (inf); candlesziehen; sheepin Desinfektionslösung baden, dippen; to dip something in flour/eggetw in Mehl/Ei wälzen
(into bag, basket) handstecken
(Brit Aut) headlightsabblenden; dipped headlightsAbblendlicht nt; her lights are dippedsie fährt mit Abblendlicht
to dip one’s flag (Naut) → die Flagge dippen
vi (ground)sich senken; (temperature, pointer on scale, prices)fallen, sinken; (boat)tauchen; the sun dipped behind the mountainsdie Sonne verschwand hinter den Bergen
n
(= swim) to go for a or to have a dipkurz or schnell mal schwimmen gehen, kurz reinspringen; after a or her dip she lay and sunbathednach einem kurzen Bad sonnte sie sich
(= liquid, for cleaning animals) → Desinfektionslösung f; (Tech) → Lösung f
(in ground, = hollow) → Bodensenke f; (= slope)Abfall m; the road took a dipdie Straße fiel ab
(in prices etc) → Fallen nt, → Sinken nt; to take a dipfallen, sinken
(Phys: also angle of dip) → Inklination f, → Neigungswinkel m
(Naut, of flag) → Dippen nt
(Cook) → Dip m; a garlic dipein Knoblauchdip ? lucky dip
(= candle)gezogene Kerze
(Sport) → Beugestütz m
(inf, = pickpocket) → Taschendieb m, → Langfinger m (inf)

dip

[dɪp]
1. n
a. (swim) → nuotatina
to go for a dip → andare a fare una nuotatina
b. (hollow) → cunetta; (slope) → pendenza, discesa
c. (Culin) → salsetta
d. (for sheep) → bagno
2. vt
a. (into liquid) → immergere, bagnare; (hand, into bag) → infilare; (sheep) → immergere nel disinfestante
to dip one's pen in ink → intingere la penna nell'inchiostro
he dipped his bread in his soup → ha intinto il pane nella minestra
b. to dip one's headlights (Brit) (Aut) → abbassare i fari
3. vi (slope down, road) → essere in pendenza, andare in discesa; (move down, bird, plane) → abbassarsi; (temperature, sun) → calare
to dip into one's pocket/savings (fig) → attingere al portafoglio/ai propri risparmi
to dip into a book → scorrere un libro
to dip into an author → leggere brani di un autore

dip

(dip) past tense, past participle dipped verb
1. to lower into any liquid for a moment. He dipped his bread in the soup.
2. to slope downwards. The road dipped just beyond the crossroads.
3. to lower the beam of (car headlights). He dipped his lights as the other car approached.
4. (of a ship) to lower (a flag) briefly in salute.
noun
1. a hollow (in a road etc). The car was hidden by a dip in the road.
2. a soft, savoury mixture in which a biscuit etc can be dipped. a cheese dip.
3. a short swim. a dip in the sea.
dip into
1. to withdraw amounts from (a supply, eg of money). I've been dipping into my savings recently.
2. to look briefly at (a book) or to study (a subject) in a casual manner. I've dipped into his book on Shakespeare, but I haven't read it right through.

dip

صَلْصَة, يَغْمِس namočit, omáčka dip, dyppe Dip, eintauchen βυθίζω, ντιπ mojar, salsa, salsa para mojar dippikastike, kastaa sauce, tremper umak, umočiti immergere, salsa ちょっと浸す, ディップソース, (...을 ...에) 잠깐 담그다 dippen, dipsaus dip, dyppe sos, zanurzyć molhar, molho макать, соус doppa, nedsänkning การจิ้มน้ำจิ้ม, จุ่ม daldırmak, ezme nhúng, nước chấm , 蘸酱
References in periodicals archive ?
Effects of fault displacement, internal pressure radius-thickness ratio and fault dip angle on longitudinal strain of buried steel pipeline were discussed.
Findings showed the main indicators of a giant earthquake was how the plate overlies the subduction zone, the stress placed on the zone, the dip angle, the curvature of the plate boundary and how fast it moves.
Because the dip angle (62-75[degrees]) of the slopes was higher than the friction angle (26-32[degrees]) of the rock mass, the maximum slope heights ([H.
In addition, knowledge of the mean dip angle between bedding and surface is required to define the average thermal conductivity tensor.
Drill hole RMZ11-23 is located 25 metres to the south of the first drill hole (RMZ11-21) at the same azimuth and dip angle.
The dip angle, strike, and orientation were digitized as point data and were interpolated to a grid of 10 m by 10 m using a weighted inverse distance function which allowed the use of barriers--in this application, faults--during the interpolation process.
Fractionary collapse with complex slip surface may occur at slopes with slight dip angle Figure 5.
A magnetometer measures the earth's magnetic field and dip angle to resolve the tool's relationship to magnetic north.
HOLE CHU E004 was drilled at an azimuth 210 degrees and a dip angle of -55 degrees to test the western boundary of the EAST High Grade Zone and was located 70 meters west of previously announced drill hole CHU 07-15 (0.
2 Table 3 Standard value and upper/lower limit of design variables Variable name Standard Minimum Maximum value value value Upper suspension length, mm 340 300 400 Lower suspension length, mm 510 480 550 Upper suspension landscape 10 8 15 planar dip angle, [degrees] Upper suspension landscape 10 5 15 planar dip angle, [degrees] Table 4 Data comparison before and after optimization Front wheel alignment Before optimization parameters Change scope Variance Kingpin inclination, 9 ~ 9.