Consequences of confirmation and disconfirmation
in a simulated research environment.
Satisfaction is based on the concept of disconfirmation
, which represents the gap that exists between customer expectations and service performance.
This consists of developing a hierarchy of fearful activities and engaging in them in a graduated manner from least to most fearful until discomfort or disconfirmation
of the fearful belief occurs.
1988) find support for the premise that feelings of disappointment, frustration, and distress typically emanate from the disconfirmation
of a process or event that is perceived to be desirable, especially if the focal actor (in this case, the retail salesperson) has previously invested effort toward the process or event.
Referring to Theory of Disconfirmation
 reviewed in the previous section, Negative disconfirmation
results when a product or service performance is less than the customer's expectations, and it will create complaint and negative words of mouth .
This means that if stakeholders feel connected with sport business es they will have high credibility expectations, and that ethical breaches by the organization's personnel will often result in disconfirmation
of those expectations and strong emotional responses (Eisingerich & Bell, 2007).
This argument hinges on rivals being equally believable, which in turn hinges on the vulnerability criterion of belief, which states that if two theories are equally vulnerable to empirical disconfirmation
and one of the theories is logically stronger than the other one, we should believe the weaker theory.
Following the disconfirmation
of Sproles and Kendall's original model structure, an exploratory factor analysis was performed to develop a model of consumer decision-making styles that fits the German data better.
As summarized by Oliver (1980), satisfaction is seen as a summary psychological state resulting from emotions surrounding disconfirmation
or confirmation of the consumer's expectations or prior feelings of a service and thoughts about the actual consumption experience.
Outcome Satisfaction in Negotiation: A Test of Expectancy Disconfirmation
," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, (60:2), 1994, pp.
Hoyer, MacInnis, and Dasgupta (2008) have rightly observed that if the expectations are too high and promises made are such that cannot be kept, marketers are setting themselves up for a potential negative disconfirmation
It is this disconfirmation
of expectation that is the defining feature of disappointment.