31) Also, even if consumers ask a salesperson about the terms of a contract, they are more likely to use a confirmatory test strategy, meaning they will simply look for information in the contract that confirms what they were told was true, rather than a disconfirmatory
test strategy, which would actively test whether what they were told was false.
Not only does this immediately set a narrative into place, it affords little opportunity for movement towards truth in the face of disconfirmatory
Although the proposed model presents a tenable explanation for the observed correlations in the data, it should be examined from a disconfirmatory
perspective; that is, the presented theories were not proven false, but they were also not proven true.
Several cognitive mechanisms have been proposed to explain the maintenance of delusions in schizophrenia, including bias against disconfirmatory
evidence, bias in favor of confirmatory evidence, and safety-seeking behaviors.
Andersen (2012), "The Disconfirmatory
Interview as a Strategy for the
See Sheff, Biasing Brands, supra note 4, at 1287-95 (discussing the persistence of consumer biases even in the face of disconfirmatory
evidence and even when consumers are warned of their tendency toward biased decisionmaking); id.
at 97-98 ("The number of disconfirmatory
acts required to replace [an] original rule is a function partly of the number of acts that established the original rule .
But for researchers to restrict an approach to a purely disconfirmatory
agenda would be throwing the baby out with the bath water, or at least wilfully not checking to see if the baby is in the bath first, because we just don't like children.
Sawatsky also believed in maintaining a militant neutrality in his approach, always keeping an open mind and allowing for disconfirmatory
evidence to be heard.
the availability heuristic), (88) the tendency to be overconfident in one's judgments, particularly when uncertainty is involved (the overconfidence bias), (89) the tendency to rely only on confirmatory evidence, while ignoring disconfirmatory
evidence (the confirmation trap bias), (90) and the reputational influences that cause Groupthink (the pressure to conform to group norms).
Finally, high NFCs tend to be insensitive to disconfirmatory
Over-prediction of anxiety and disconfirmatory
processes in anxiety disorders.