These are the 1898 dares of the leader of Wilmington, North Carolina's White Government League, as it pursued segregation and the disfranchisement
that would soon follow via constitutional amendment in 1900 (quoted in Glenda E.
According to Leloudis, educational reformers "looked to the classroom" to inculcate the rising generation with "the habits of wage labor and market production," while simultaneously promising racial stability and order "in a world of hardening segregation and black disfranchisement
It was the breakdown of consensus politics that led the party to abandon suffrage as the central focus of its political agenda; and the decline in the party's commitment accounted, in part, for the eventual disfranchisement
of southern blacks.
Intellectuals and civil rights activists, Grimke and Woodson forcefully challenged segregation, disfranchisement
, and proscription.
So we see the world turned upside down in allegations that, for instance, the reapportionment plan that enabled the first blacks to be elected since Reconstruction to the Congressional delegation from North Carolina - a state that is a quarter black and has a history of systematic disfranchisement
- foments segregation "apartheid" and "ghettoizes" black voters.
They contrasted its subtle and apparently colorblind techniques with the crude racist policies of the "old" disfranchisement
of the Reconstruction and Nadir eras.
At the turn of the century, disfranchisement
, white violence, and racism diminished African Americans' participation in political affairs.
Myth: Poor Whites and Suffrage Restriction in Alabama.
During World War II, civil right leaders in rural Louisiana were quick to point out the contradiction between the fight for democarcy overseas and the segregation, disfranchisement
and violence they suffered at home.
But the overriding effect, according to Crenson and Ginsberg, is the virtual disfranchisement
of those Americans who can't afford postmaterialist politics.
A wave of constitutional conventions resulted in poll taxes, cumulative poll taxes (requiring that back taxes as well as current taxes be paid as a condition to voting), literacy tests, lengthy residence requirements, elaborate registration systems, and disfranchisement
on conviction of a host of petty crimes.
Segregation and disfranchisement
statutes proliferated, and the white South succumbed to an orgy of lynching and random acts of racial violence in order to serve notice on blacks that breaches in the racial code, however trivial, would not be tolerated.