Further, Carroll, Hoffman, and Young show that while there are variations of the model that can produce the amount of upward mobility observed in the data, they still fall short in delivering the right amount of downward mobility
Of course, we do have downward mobility
of a sort in the UK but it reinforces inequalities in areas other than social class.
They blame globalization for damaging their livelihoods and economic prospects, and they seek an enemy-some 'other'-whom they can vilify for the uncertainty and downward mobility
they have experienced.
It would mean facing up to the fact that, in resettling the patterns of advantage and disadvantage, we would need substantial downward mobility
for some, as well as plenty of others moving up.
Neo-liberal imperatives suggest that this downward mobility
should be addressed through "processes of individualisation [that] visit new forms of responsibility on young people and their families .
In terms of class, it is little surprise that while women from lower income households aspire to skilled and professional jobs, women from upper and middle classes do not pursue a job that results in downward mobility
This downward mobility
in terms of job availabilities stems from current government policies.
is observed when certain capital elites transferred to the provinces for term appointments, while upward mobility can be seen where wealthy merchants, clergy, military, and other non-officeholder elite families moved into the capital region.
The iconic "faithful widow" of the late Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties, who underwent countless ordeals serving her mother-in-law and was told to commit suicide if pressured to remarry, is explained as a cultural response to increasing social fluidity that made protection of the patriline a paramount defense against downward mobility
He added, "The idea that downward mobility
is more likely today than upward mobility turns the American dream on its head, and is an indicator of how badly confidence has been eroded.
Today's fiftysomethings may be part of the first generation in American history to experience this kind of lifetime downward mobility
, in which at every stage of adult life, they have had less income and less net wealth than did people who were their age ten years before.
Cultures typified by such negative social capital outcomes enforce downward mobility
norms, whereby attempts by network members to engage with mainstream society are perceived as deviant and are socially sanctioned.