For example, in dulotic species a minimum number of workers may be required to successfully carry out slave raids.
1990), in a model based on the life history of the dulotic species Harpagoxenus sublaevis, found facultative worker reproduction to be very advantageous for both queens and workers if queens are short-lived and sexual production is possible in orphaned colonies.
Winter and Buschinger (1983) estimate that about half the males in the dulotic E.
Strongylognathus species are most definitely dulotic and have evolved from obligately sterile Tetramorium caespitum, but workers of this genus have not, to our knowledge, been systematically examined for functional ovaries.
Parasite worker number should positively correlate with both colony-level production of sexuals and the likelihood of worker reproduction in dulotic species with obligate brood care by nonconspecific slaves.
All dulotic species of the genus Epimyrma are probably monandrous and all, except one, are strictly monogynous.
Temporarily parasitic and dulotic species should be primarily found in environmentally.
Be that as it may, not one dulotic species has been found in the tropics.
In dulotic species of Epimyrma, larvae require overwintering to develop into sexuals, in contrast to inquiline Epimyrma, which can produce sexuals without the larvae having to overwinter (Buschinger, 1989).
corsica appear to have derived an inquiline life history from dulotic ancestors similar to E.