Exclusion criteria were: (1) a history of alcohol consumption >20 g/d; (2) co-existence of other liver diseases such as viral, drug-induced, auto-immune hepatitis; (3) suspected liver cirrhosis or liver cancer; (4) co-existence of other severe systematic disease or infectious disease such as malignant neoplasm, severe cardiopulmonary disease, neurological disorders, or HIV infection; (5) currently pregnant, breastfeeding, pregnancy anticipated during study, or planning to conceive; and (6) co-existence of mental disorders or severe neurosis, or unable to express symptoms subjectively and hindering connection and cooperation with researchers because of dysgnosia
Excessive deposits of copper in the brain may cause neurological disorders such as Parkinson-like symptoms, including bradykinesia, tremor and dystonia, or neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as hypomnesia, dysgnosia
, and personality abnormalities (Seniow J.
As a result, the various maladies, affecting higher education--dysbulia, dysgnosia
, state of higher education as being in "a pathological condition replete with signs, symptoms, and complications" (Geisler 2006, p.