economics


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ec·o·nom·ics

 (ĕk′ə-nŏm′ĭks, ē′kə-)
n.
1. (used with a sing. verb) The social science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services and with the theory and management of economies or economic systems.
2. (used with a sing. or pl. verb) Economic matters, especially relevant financial considerations: "Economics are slowly killing the family farm" (Christian Science Monitor).

economics

(ˌiːkəˈnɒmɪks; ˌɛkə-)
n
1. (Economics) (functioning as singular) the social science concerned with the production and consumption of goods and services and the analysis of the commercial activities of a society. See also macroeconomics, microeconomics
2. (Economics) (functioning as plural) financial aspects: the economics of the project are very doubtful.

ec•o•nom•ics

(ˌɛk əˈnɒm ɪks, ˌi kə-)

n.
1. (used with a sing. v.) the science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, or human welfare.
2. (used with a pl. v.) financial considerations; economically significant aspects.
[1785–95]

Economics

See also finance; money

Rare. the science of wealth; plutology.
a national policy of economic self-sufficiency or independence. — autarkist, n. — autarkie, autarkical, adj.
the practice of promoting trade between two countries through agreements concerning quantity and price of commodities. Cf. multilateralism.bilateralistic, adj.
the principles behind, and means of carrying out, a boycott. — boycotter, n.
the theories and adherence to the theories of the cameralists. — cameralist, n. — cameralistic. adj.
a mercantilist economist of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries who believed in the doctrine that a nation’s wealth could be made greater by increasing its supply of money. — cameralistic, adj.
a system of economics under which ownership of and investment in the means of production and distribution depends chiefly upon corporations and private individuals. — capitalist, n. — capitalistic, adj.
the practice of controlling production and prices by agreements between or among international companies. — cartel, n.
the study of the production of wealth, especially as attained from precious metals.
the economic doctrines of Richard Cobden (1804-65), who believed in peace and the withdrawal from European competition for balance of power.
the mercantilist theories of Jean Colbert in the 17th century, especially his advocacy of high protective tariffs.
1. the principles, practice, and spirit of commerce.
2. an excessive emphasis on high profit, commercial success, or immediate results.
3. a commercial custom, practice, or expression. — commercialist, n. — commercialistic, adj.
the principles and practices associated with the utilization of economic goods.
an economic phenomenon of the late 1970s and early 1980s in which investors, flnding that conventional savings and thrift methods did not pay sufficient interest to keep pace with inflation, transferred their funds to the money market and related savings and investment instruments, leading to a rapid growth in those resources and a loss of funds from institutions like savings banks.
language and jargon typical of economists and the field of economics.
mathematical methods used in the science of economics to prove and develop economic theories.
the study of the production, use, and consumption of goods and services in society. — economie, economical, adj. — economist, n.
a theory or doctrine that attaches principal importance to economic goals. — economist, n.
a late 19th-century English movement that favored the gradual development of socialism by peaceful means. — Fabian, n., adj.
the theory of Henry Ford stating that production efficiency is dependent on successful assembly-line methods.
a system of social and economic organization based upon highly mechanized industry. — industrialist, n., adj.
the quality of advocating economic inflation. — inflationist, n.
the principle of contribution and division of capital or stock by a number of persons.
the economic theories of John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946), English economist, and his advocates, especially his emphasis upon deficit spending by government to stimulate business investment. — Keynesian, n., adj.
the economic doctrine that the government should intervene as little as possible in economic affairs. — laissez-faireist, n., adj.
the division of economics dealing with broad, general aspects of an economy, as the import-export balance of a nation as a whole. Cf. microeconomics. — macroeconomist, n. — macroeconomic, adj.
the theories of Thomas Malthus (1766-1834), English economist, stating that population growth tends to increase faster than production and that food and necessities will be in short supply unless population growth is restricted or war, disease, and famine intervene. — Malthusian, n., adj.
the policies and principles of an English school of economists based in Manchester. — Manchesterist, n.
a political and economic policy seeking to advance a state above others by accumulating large quantities of precious metals and by exporting in large quantity while importing in small. — mercantilist, n. — mercantilistic, adj.
the division of economics dealing with particular aspects of an economy, as the price-cost relationship of a business. Cf. macroeconomies. — microeconomist, n. — microeconomic, adj.
1. an economic theory maintaining that stability and growth in the economy are dependent on a steady growth rate in the supply of money.
2. the principle put forward by American economist Milton Friedman that control of the money supply and, thereby, of rate in the supply of credit serves to control inflation and recession while fostering prosperity. — monetarist, n., adj.
the practice of promoting trade among several countries through agreements concerning quantity and price of commodities, as the Common Market, and, sometimes, restrictive tariffs on goods from outsiders.
the act or process of the taking over of private industry by government. See also government.
the belief that the use of contraceptives as a means of lowering the population will eliminate such adverse elements as vice and elevate the Standard of living. — Neo-Malthusian, n., adj.
the principles of social and labor reform along communistic lines developed by Robert Owen (1771-1858). — Owenite, n.
the herding or tending of cattle as a primary economic activity or occupation. Also pasturage. — pastoralist, n. — pastoral, adj.
the branch of economics that studies wealth; theoretical economics. Also called plutonomy.
the act or process of transferring to private ownership industry operated by a government, of ten industry that has been nationalized. See also government.
the theory or practice of a method of fostering or developing industry through restrictive tariffs on foreign imports. — protectionist, n., adj.
the economic theories and policies of the administration of President Ronald Reagan (1981- ), basically a policy of supply-side economics with emphasis on defense spending, encouragement of private and corporate development and investment, and reduction in government spending on social services.
a believer in the economic theories of David Ricardo, English economist, especially that rental income is an economic surplus. — Ricardian, adj.
the theory of the Comte de Saint-Simon (1760-1825), who proposed a socialism in which all property and production be state-controlled with distribution on the basis of an individual’s job and ability. — Saint-Simonist, n.

Economics

 
  1. Balancing the budget is a little like protecting your virtue —you just have to learn to say no —Ronald Reagan
  2. Capital is dead labor, that, vampire-like, only lives by sucking living labor —Karl Marx
  3. The Dow-Jones is floating up like a hot-air balloon —Francois Camoin
  4. Economics is like being lost in the woods. How can you tell where you are going when you don’t even know where you are? —Anon
  5. Feeding more tax dollars to government is like feeding a stray pup. It just follows you home and sits on your doorstep asking for more —Ronald Reagan
  6. Financial statements are like a bikini. What they reveal is interesting; what they conceal is vital —William W. Priest, Jr., Managing Director BEA Associates, “Wall Street Week” television program, January 9, 1987
  7. Forecasting economic averages is like assuring the non-swimmer that he can safely walk across the river because its average depth is only four feet —Milton Friedman
  8. Inflation, like DC-10s, and Three Mile Islands, and Cold Wars is bad for your mental health —Ellen Goodman
  9. It [the economy] looks more resistant to shoves and shocks than it once was. Like a clown on a roly-poly base, it swings back and forth but does not topple over —Leonard Silk, New York Times/Economic Scene, September 17, 1986
  10. A little inflation is like a little pregnancy, it keeps on growing —Leo Henderson
  11. Poverty is a temporary fault, but excessive wealth is [like] a lasting ailment —Kahlil Gibran
  12. A recession is like an unfortunate love affair. It’s a lot easier to talk your way in than it is to talk your way out —Bill Vaughan, Reader’s Digest, July, 1958
  13. Right now being an arbitrageur is kind of like being a fire hydrant at a dog show, you sure get a lot of attention —Anon arbitrageur, quote Wall Street Journal, 1987

    The fire hydrants comparison was made in connection with the image problems resulting from arbitrage scandals.

  14. Signs of reviving inflation are as abundant as are skeptics who read each rise in inflationary barometers as an aberration —John C. Borland, New York Times, September 28, 1986
  15. The stock market climbed like the horses of Apollo —Hortense Calisher
  16. Takeovers on a scale that would make 19th-century pirates look like croquet players —Harry A. Jacobs (senior director of Prudential-Bache Securities), commenting on increase in company takeovers and other economic ills, as quoted in Leonard Silk’s column, New York Times/Economic Scene, February 4, 1987
  17. Tax loopholes are like parking spaces, they all seem to disappear by the time you get there —Joey Adams
  18. To some economists, inflation is like those trick birthday candles, the ones that are impossible to blow out —Joel Popkin, New York Times, August 17, 1986
  19. Turning national economic policy around is like turning the Queen Mary around in a bathtub —E. Gerald Corrigan, chairman of Federal Reserve Bank of New York, at Japan Society dinner, New York Times, April 17, 1987
  20. The wife economy [wherein husbands assume full economic responsibility for wives] is as obsolete as the slave economy —Elizabeth Hardwick

    See Also: MARRIAGE

economics

1. 'economics'

Economics is a noun. It usually refers to the study of the way in which money, industry, and trade are organized.

Paula has a degree in economics.

When economics has this meaning, it is an uncountable noun. You use a singular form of a verb with it.

Economics is a science.

If you want to say that something relates to the subject of economics, you use economics in front of another noun.

He has an economics degree.
I teach in the economics department.

Be Careful!
Don't talk about an 'economic degree' or an 'economic department'.

The economics of an industry or project are the aspects of it that are concerned with making a profit.

This decision will change the economics of the project.

When economics is used with this meaning, it is a plural noun. You use a plural form of a verb with it.

The economics of the airline industry are dramatically affected by rising energy costs.
2. 'economy'

Economy is also a noun. The economy of a country or region is the system by which money, industry, and trade are organized there.

New England's economy is still largely based on manufacturing.
Unofficial strikes were damaging the British economy.

Economy is also careful spending or the careful use of things in order to save money.

His home was small for reasons of economy.
3. 'economies'

If you make economies, you try to save money by not spending it on unnecessary things.

It might be necessary to make a few economies.
They will make economies by hiring fewer part-time workers.

Be Careful!
However, don't refer to the money that someone has saved as their 'economies'. You refer to this money as their savings.

She spent all her savings.
He opened a savings account.
4. 'economic'

Economic is an adjective. You use it to describe things connected with the organization of money and trade in a country or region. When economic has this meaning, you only use it in front of a noun. Don't use it after a linking verb.

The chancellor proposed radical economic reforms.
What has gone wrong with the economic system during the last ten years?

If something is economic, it makes a profit, or does not result in money being lost. When economic has this meaning, it can go either in front of a noun or after a linking verb.

It is difficult to provide an economic public transport service.
We have to keep fares high enough to make it economic for the service to continue.
5. 'economical'

Economical is also an adjective. If something is economical, it is cheap to operate or use.

We bought a small, economical car.
This system was extremely economical because it ran on half-price electricity.

economics

The study of the arrangements that societies make concerning the use and development of the limited resources on our planet.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.economics - the branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their managementeconomics - the branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management
production - (economics) manufacturing or mining or growing something (usually in large quantities) for sale; "he introduced more efficient methods of production"
Gresham's Law - (economics) the principle that when two kinds of money having the same denominational value are in circulation the intrinsically more valuable money will be hoarded and the money of lower intrinsic value will circulate more freely until the intrinsically more valuable money is driven out of circulation; bad money drives out good; credited to Sir Thomas Gresham
economic theory - (economics) a theory of commercial activities (such as the production and consumption of goods)
social science - the branch of science that studies society and the relationships of individual within a society
game theory, theory of games - (economics) a theory of competition stated in terms of gains and losses among opposing players
econometrics - the application of mathematics and statistics to the study of economic and financial data
finance - the branch of economics that studies the management of money and other assets
macroeconomics - the branch of economics that studies the overall working of a national economy
microeconomics - the branch of economics that studies the economy of consumers or households or individual firms
supply-side economics - the school of economic theory that stresses the costs of production as a means of stimulating the economy; advocates policies that raise capital and labor output by increasing the incentive to produce
spillover - (economics) any indirect effect of public expenditure
capital account - (economics) that part of the balance of payments recording a nation's outflow and inflow of financial securities
economic consumption, use of goods and services, usance, consumption, use - (economics) the utilization of economic goods to satisfy needs or in manufacturing; "the consumption of energy has increased steadily"
utility - (economics) a measure that is to be maximized in any situation involving choice
marginal utility - (economics) the amount that utility increases with an increase of one unit of an economic good or service
productivity - (economics) the ratio of the quantity and quality of units produced to the labor per unit of time
monopoly - (economics) a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller; "a monopoly on silver"; "when you have a monopoly you can ask any price you like"
monopsony - (economics) a market in which goods or services are offered by several sellers but there is only one buyer
oligopoly - (economics) a market in which control over the supply of a commodity is in the hands of a small number of producers and each one can influence prices and affect competitors
moral hazard - (economics) the lack of any incentive to guard against a risk when you are protected against it (as by insurance); "insurance companies are exposed to a moral hazard if the insured party is not honest"
real - of, relating to, or representing an amount that is corrected for inflation; "real prices"; "real income"; "real wages"
nominal - of, relating to, or characteristic of an amount that is not adjusted for inflation; "the nominal GDP"; "nominal interest rates"
inflationary - associated with or tending to cause increases in inflation; "inflationary prices"
deflationary - associated with or tending to cause decreases in consumer prices or increases in the purchasing power of money; "deflationary measures"

economics

noun finance, commerce, the dismal science He gained a first class degree in economics. see economic organizations and treaties
Quotations
"We have always known that heedless self-interest was bad morals; we know now that it is bad economics" [Franklin Delano Roosevelt First Inaugural Address]
"The Dismal Science" [Thomas Carlyle Latter-Day Pamphlets]

Economics

Branches of economics  agronomics, cliometrics, econometrics, economic history, industrial economics, macroeconomics, microeconomics, welfare economics
Economics terms  arbitration, asset, autarky, automation, balanced budget, balance of payments, balance of trade, balance sheet, bank, bankruptcy, barriers to entry, barriers to exit, barter, base rate, bear market, bid, black economy, boom, boycott, bridging loan, budget, budget deficit, building society, bull market, business cycle, buyer's market, capacity, capital, capital good, capitalism, cartel, cash, central bank, Chamber of Commerce, closed shop, collective bargaining, command economy or planned economy, commercial bank or clearing bank, commission, commodity, common market, comparative advantage, competition, conspicuous consumption, consumer, consumer good, consumption, cooperative, corporation, corporation tax, cost-benefit analysis, cost effectiveness, cost of living, cost-push inflation, credit, credit controls, credit squeeze, currency, current account, customs union, debt, deflation, deindustrialization, demand, demand management or stabilization policy, demand-pull inflation, deposit account, depreciation, depression, deregulation, devaluation, diminishing returns, discount, discount house (Brit.), discount rate, disequilibrium, disinflation, disposable income, diversification, divestment, dividend, division of labour, dumping, duopoly, durable good, Dutch disease, duty, earned income, earnings, economic growth, economic policy, economic sanctions, economies of scale, embargo, employee, employer, employment, entrepreneur, environmental audit, exchange, exchange rate, expenditure, export, finance, financial year, fiscal drag, fiscal policy, fiscal year, Five-Year Plan, fixed assets, fixed costs, fixed exchange-rate system, fixed investment, floating exchange-rate system, foreclosure, foreign exchange controls, foreign exchange market, forfaiting, franchise, free-market economy, free rider, free trade, free trade area, free trade zone or freeport, freight, friendly society, fringe benefits, full employment, funding, futures market or forward exchange market, gains from trade, game theory, gilt-edged security or government bond, gold standard, greenfield investment, gross domestic product or GDP, gross national product or GNP, gross profit, hard currency, hedging, hire, hire purchase or HP, hoarding, holding, horizontal integration, hot money, human capital, hyperinflation, imperfect competition, import, import restrictions, income, income support, income tax, index-linked, indirect tax, industrial dispute, industrial estate, industrial policy, industrial relations, industrial sector, inflationary spiral, information agreement, infrastructure, inheritance tax, insolvency, instalment credit, institutional investors, insurance, intangible assets, intangibles, intellectual property right, interest, interest rate, international competitiveness, international debt, international reserves, investment, invisible balance, invisible hand, invoice, joint-stock company, joint venture, junk bond, labour, labour market, labour theory of value, laissez faire or laisser faire, lease, legal tender, lender, liability, liquidation, liquid asset, liquidity, listed company, loan, lockout, macroeconomic policy, management buy-out, marginal revenue, marginal utility, market, market failure, mass production, means test, mediation, medium of exchange, medium-term financial strategy, mercantilism, merchant bank, merger, microeconomic policy, middleman, mint, mixed economy, monetarism, monetary compensatory amounts, MCAs, or green money, monetary policy, money, money supply, monopoly, moonlighting, mortgage, multinational, national debt, national income, national insurance contributions, nationalization, national product, natural rate of unemployment, net profit, nondurable good, offshore, oligopoly, overheads, overheating, overmanning, overtime, patent, pawnbroker, pay, pay-as-you-earn or PAYE, payroll, pension, pension fund, per capita income, perfect competition, personal equity plan or PEP, picket, piecework, polluter pays principle, portfolio, poverty trap, premium, premium bond, price, prices and incomes policy, primary sector, private enterprise, private property, privatization, producer, production, productivity, profit, profitability, profit-and-loss account, profit margin, profit sharing, progressive taxation, protectionism, public expenditure, public finance, public interest, public-sector borrowing requirement or PSBR, public-sector debt repayment, public utility, public works, pump priming, purchasing power, quality control, ratchet effect, rational expectations, rationalization, rationing, recession, recommended retail price, recovery, recycling, redundancy, reflation, regional policy, rent, rent controls, research and development or R & D, residual unemployment, restrictive labour practice, retail, retail price index, revaluation, revenue, risk analysis, salary, sales, saving, savings bank, seasonal unemployment, self-employment, self service, self-sufficiency, seller's market, sequestration, service sector, share, shareholder, share issue, share price index, shop, shop steward, simple interest, slump, social costs, socio-economic group, soft currency, specialization, speculation, stagflation, standard of living, stock, stockbroker, stock control, stock exchange or stock market, stop-go cycle, structural unemployment, subsidiary company, subsidy, supplier, supply, supply-side economics, surplus, synergy, takeover, tangible assets, tariff, tax, taxation, tax avoidance, tax evasion, tax haven, terms of trade, trade, trade barrier, trademark, trade union, trade-weighted index, training, transaction, trust, trustee, underwriter, unearned income, unemployment, unemployment benefit, uniform business rate or UBR, unit of account, unit trust, utility, value-added tax or VAT, variable costs, venture capital, vertical integration, voluntary unemployment, wage, wage restraint, wealth, welfare state, wholesaler, worker participation, working capital, yield
Economics schools and theories  Austrian school, Chicago school, Classical school, Keynesianism, Marxism, mercantilism, monetarism, neoclassical school, neoKeynesians, Physiocrats, Reaganomics, Rogernomics (N.Z.), Thatcherism
Economists  Norman Angell (English), Walter Bagehot (British), Cesare Bonesana Beccaria (Italian), William Henry Beveridge (English), John Bright (English), Richard Cobden (English), Augustin Cournot (French), Jacques Delors (French), C(lifford) H(ugh) Douglas (English), Milton Friedman (U.S.), Ragnar Frisch (Norwegian), J(ohn) K(enneth) Galbraith (U.S.), Henry George (U.S.), Friedrich August von Hayek (Austrian-British), David Hume (Scottish), William Stanley Jevons (English), John Maynard Keynes (British), Simon Kuznets (U.S.), Arthur Laffer (U.S.), Stephen Butler Leacock (Canadian), Sicco Leendert Mansholt (Dutch), Arthur Lewis West (Indian), Thomas Robert Malthus (British), Alfred Marshall (British), Karl Marx (German), James Mill (Scottish), John Stuart Mill (English), Jean Monnet (French), Nicole d' Oresme (French), Andreas (George) Papandreou (Greek), Vilfredo Pareto (Italian), Frédéric Passy (French), A. W. H. Phillips (English), François Quesnay (French), David Ricardo (British), Ernst Friedrich Schumacher (British), Joseph Schumpeter (Austrian), Jean Charles Léonard Simonde de Sismondi (Swiss), Adam Smith (British), Jan Tinbergen (Dutch), Arnold Toynbee (English), Anne Robert Jacques Turgot (French), Thorstein Veblen (U.S.), Dame Barbara (Mary) Ward (British), Sidney Webb (British), Max Weber (German), Barbara (Frances) Wootton (English)
Translations
عِلْم الأقْتِصادعِلْمُ الِاقْتِصَاد
икономика
economia
ekonomie
økonomi
اقتصاد
taloustiedeekonomiakansantaloustiede
ekonomija
közgazdaságtanközgazdaság-tudomány
hagfræîi
経済学
경제학
oeconomia
ekonomika
ekonomiaekonomika
economie
ekonomija
ekonomi
วิชาเศรษฐศาสตร์
iktisatekonomiekonomi bilimi
економіка
kinh tế học

economics

[ˌiːkəˈnɒmɪks]
A. NSING (= science) → economía f
he's doing economics at universityestudia económicas en la universidad
see also home D
B. NPL (= financial aspects) → aspectos mpl económicos
the economics of the situationlos aspectos económicos de la situación
the economics of the third world countriesla economía de los países tercermundistas

economics

[ˌiːkəˈnɒmɪks ˌɛkəˈnɒmɪks]
n
(= university subject) → économie f politique, sciences fpl économiques
He's studying economics → Il étudie les sciences économiques.
npl
the economics of sth → l'aspect m économique de qcheconomies of scale npléconomies fpl d'échelle

economics

n
sing or plVolkswirtschaft f, → Wirtschaftswissenschaften pl; (= social economics)Volkswirtschaft f; (in management studies) → Betriebswirtschaft f
pl (= economic aspect)Wirtschaftlichkeit f, → Ökonomie f; the economics of the situationdie wirtschaftliche Seite der Situation

economics

[ˌiːkəˈnɒmɪks]
1. nsg (science) → economia
2. npl (financial aspects) → aspetto or lato economico

economy

(iˈkonəmi) noun
1. the thrifty, careful management of money etc to avoid waste. Please use the water with economy; We must make economies in household spending.
2. organization of money and resources. the country's economy; household economy.
economic (iːkəˈnomik) adjective
1. of or concerned with (an) economy. the country's economic future.
2. likely to bring a profit. an economic rent.
economical (iːkəˈnomikəl) adjective
thrifty; not extravagant. This car is very economical on petrol.
ˌecoˈnomically adverb
economics (iːkəˈnomiks) noun singular
the study of production and distribution of money and goods. He is studying economics.
eˈconomist noun
a person who is an expert in economics.
eˈconomize, eˈconomise verb
to spend money or goods carefully. We must economize on fuel.

economics

عِلْمُ الِاقْتِصَاد ekonomie økonomi Volkswirtschaftslehre οικονομικά ciencias económicas, economía taloustiede économie ekonomija economia 経済学 경제학 economie sosialøkonomi ekonomia economia экономика ekonomi วิชาเศรษฐศาสตร์ ekonomi kinh tế học 经济学
References in classic literature ?
Miss Wilson's young ladies, being instructed in economics, knew that this proved that the land was being used to produce what was most wanted from it; and if all the advantage went to the landlord, that was but natural, as he was the chief gentleman in the neighborhood.
He meant it as a reward, as the highest honour he could offer, in acknowledgement of Arthur's loyalty and rectitude and the distinctions he had already gained in mathematics and economics at Cambridge.
In the latter aspect her d'Urberville descent was a fact of great dimensions; worthless to economics, it was a most useful ingredient to the dreamer, to the moralizer on declines and falls.
There were even classes at the London School of Economics, and a humble personal appeal to the director of that institution to recommend a course bearing on the flower business.
Such a student, if he be bright, will profit more by an experience like this than he could profit by all the books on sociology and economics that ever were written.
She told Helen that he always called on Sundays when they were at home; he knew about a great many things--about mathematics, history, Greek, zoology, economics, and the Icelandic Sagas.
To be sure I often broke this rule, as people are apt to do with rules of the kind; it was not possible for a boy to wade through heavy articles relating to English politics and economics, but I do not think I left any paper upon a literary topic unread, and I did read enough politics, especially in Blackwood's, to be of Tory opinions; they were very fit opinions for a boy, and they did not exact of me any change in regard to the slavery question.
He had become interested, in a day, in economics, industry, and politics.
In the years that followed no more lectures were given in the University of California by one Freddie Drummond, and no more books on economics and the labour question appeared over the name of Frederick A.
At first, in a mild way, he had dabbled in philosophy; then, becoming interested, he had drifted on into economics and sociology.
It has been my custom for many years, as a student of economics and sociology, to acquaint myself--"
You will remember that, in consequence of the War economics practiced at Styles, no waste paper was thrown away.

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