David Sobel's writing in Beyond Ecophobia
and on place-based education have helped inform the remainder of my strategies.
We question Thornber's insistence who asserts in her 2014 article "Chinese Literature and Environmental Crises: Plundering Borderlands North and South" that "ecoambiguity refers to the inconsistent, frequently contradictory interactions between people and the natural world and captures better these diverse relationships than the more familiar ecocritical concepts of ecocentrism, ecophilia, and ecophobia
" (2) and see, rather, biophilia and ecophobia
as different points on what is clearly a spectrum.
, time constraints, inadequate funding, and limited knowledge of nature are also given nods as credible barriers to opportunities for children to engage with nature.
Another term, ecophobia
, is used when children develop fear for the future of the planet because of ominous sounding phrases such as global warming, deforestation, and extinction (Sobel 1996).
is defined as fear and contempt for the environment--as the "irrational and groundless hatred of the natural world or aspects of it"--a hatred that motivates all kinds of destructive behaviours towards nature.
Green, Pink, and Lavender: Banishing Ecophobia
Through Queer Ecologies.
Broadly speaking, ecophobia
is an irrational and groundless fear or hatred of the natural world, as present and subtle in our daily lives and literature as homophobia and racism and sexism.
Chirophobia is a fear of hands, dipsophobia (drinking), ecophobia
(home) and ombrophobia is a fear of rain or of being rained upon, so always remember to take your ombrella.
Connecting with other activist-oriented theories is important, but it is not enough, especially when it shies away from following through on the theoretical implications that would help us to understand how racism and ecophobia
and misogyny and homophobia are mutually reinforcing.
Similarly, in the book Beyond Ecophobia
, environmental educator David Sobel (1996) emphasizes, "What's important is that children have an opportunity to bond with the natural world, to learn to love it, before being asked to heal its wounds" (p.
Estok in Ecocriticism and Shakespeare: Reading Ecophobia
, Joni Adamson in American Indian Literature, Environmental Justice, and Ecocriticism: The Middle Place, Cary Wolfe in Animal Rites: American Culture, the Discourse of Species and Posthumanism, and Gaard (as well as Estok and Serpil Oppermann) in International Perspectives in Feminist Ecocriticism--anthropocentric forms of prejudice are inseparable from the forms of prejudice that are constructed upon differences of race, ethnicity, and gender.
I call this "digital ecoactivist pedagogy" (DEP), a response to the dearth of activism in ecocriticism Estok describes in "Theorizing in a Space of Ambivalent Openness: Ecocriticism and Ecophobia