In ethics or, rather, meta-ethics, as I will indicate shortly, this came to be called the school of emotivism
365) Although contemporary society has discovered that its ability to carry on rational discussion of moral issues has vanished and, as such, substitutes emotivism
for narrative coherence and reason, (366) it is valuable to note, in grounding politics upon the idea of the free, unfettered, and autonomous choice of individuals, that liberalism conferred legitimacy via the notion of consent.
Frege-Geach worries about embedding and composition have plagued metaethical theories like emotivism
, prescriptivism, and expressivism.
Indeed, while the world of professional philosophy was increasingly dominated by various forms of positivism that combined a commitment to scientific reason with some type of moral emotivism
, in popular culture the idea of "a higher moral order" accessible to the human mind was beginning to lose ground to "moral relativism" (46).
Ross stood fast on this view in his later and more illustrious monographs On law and justice (1958) where in some places he discussed justice from the viewpoint of emotivism
characterizing justice as emotional expression (31), and Directives and Norms (1968) where in mapping what types of basic positions in moral philosophy are commonly-held, he explicitely stated his commitment to the meta-ethical view of emotivism
See also David Carr (1997), who offers a sympathetic, non-Wittgensteinian view of Best and McFee on their handling of dance as integrated practices rather than sets of movements, but who takes issue with their attempt to inflate its rational element in defence against emotivism
, subjectivity and scepticism.
It seems to me that Ryn's willingness to point to Machiavelli as an exemplar of moral action in desperate times stems from a frustration with contemporary rules-based moral codes he finds to have been chained to the emotivism
A critique of emotivism
an aesthetic accounts of visual art.
Thus, for instance, James Rachels (2011) writing about subjectivism in ethics first discusses the basic idea of ethical subjectivism and the evolution of the theory from simple subjectivism to emotivism
in order to introduce "moral facts.
This de-traditioning leaves them to fall back onto a vague emotivism
advancing the idea that it is the feelings of the individual that is the sole arbitrator for truth and ethical decision-making (MacIntyre, 2007; Wright & Strawn, 2010).
asserts that moral terms are defined by individual emotions and desires; and since emotions are relative to each individual, there is no objective or universal truth.
From these different sources individualism, subjectivism, and ethical emotivism
have characterized modernity significantly and distinctively.