Human organoids have been generated in past studies with progenitor cells, such as the posterior gut endoderm
progenitors generated in this study.
Nailing down the precise details and context of developmental molecular-cellular crosstalk in the endoderm
of an embryo -- where livers form -- is critical to this technology's therapeutic potential.
Benign mature cystic teratomas of the ovary are composed of endoderm
and ectoderm, but not mesoderm.
The interaction between the endoderm
of the third pharyngeal pouch and neural crest derived mesenchyme from the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches is crucial to thymic development1.
If pharyngeal segments of primitive notochord remain connected to the endoderm
in the nasopharynx, a bursa or pouch occurs which extends towards occipital bone.
We are going to see that the gut and other internal organs like the liver, pancreas, heart, lung, bladder, and kidney are made from the same embryonic tissue as the endoderm
that also keeps a link with the nervous system and brain that comes from the ectoderm.
Both of them are derived from the endoderm
of the foregut as the esophagus, stomach, and a part of duodenum.
Background: The Definitive Endoderm
(DE) differentiation using the undefined media and non-human feeders can cause contaminations in the generated cells for therapeutic applications.
Only cells of the inner cell mass (ICM) from blastocyst have the pluripotent capacity for formation of all three primary germ layers, endoderm
, mesoderm, and ectoderm.
Objective: Mesoderm, the embryonic germ layer between ectoderm and endoderm
, gives rise to major organs within the circulatory and excretory systems and to stabilizing tissues (muscles, bones, connective tissue).
Patterns of gene expression suggest that initial left-right asymmetry is established at the late gastrula/early neurula by nodal expression in anterior somites on the left and later in endoderm
on the left together with the expression of the nodal antagonist, lefty, on the right (Yu et al.
28,58) Nerve cord, notochord, mesenchyme, or endoderm
cells are derived from the anterior vegetal cells (Fig.