In addition, aerial insecticide applications would probably not be effective because the damaging stage of the insect is endophagous
(Vigueras & Portillo 2001).
Interactions between the rust fungus Puccinia punctiformis and ectophagous and endophagous
insects on creeping thistle.
The size of plant modules is an important feature that influences the preference (oviposition choice), and performance (survival, and pupal or adult biomass) of many guilds of endophagous
insect herbivores, such as gall formers, because plant size represents a quantity-quality indicator of resources (e.
polystichalis are somewhat similar, being endophagous
, and the larva cuts an operculum for eclosion of the adult.
We believe that plant phenology may be one of the strongest forces of selection on endophagous
parasites such as leafminers.
Itonididae), as well as of its endophagous
primary parasite Secondes coactus RATZB.
The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is an oligophagous herbivore whose endophagous
larvae feed gregariously on numerous Opuntia species (CaryophyHales: Cactaceae) (Mann 1969; Zimmermann et al.
Similarity of species composition increased markedly among replicates within each litter treatment for two sectors of the assemblage: the large, litter-dwelling species and the endophagous
and wood-associated species.
Based on the present work and the Stiling and Rossi (1996) gall study done in very similar habitats we suggest that, in stressful habitats like salt marshes, endophagous
feeders may be more likely to be involved in tri-trophic interactions than exophagous feeders.
This would enable the endophagous
larvae to survive in air spaces within the plants so long as the submergence period was not excessive.
Delays in development of Cameraria larvae, as well as other leafminers and sedentary, endophagous
insects, may result in increased death from leaf abscission (Faeth et al.
One oligophagous endophagous
insect has likely shifted from the native to the invasive, but none to the non-invasive Eugenia.