Fraunce's use of Garcilaso was limited to those cases where he did not mention Boscan, cases where he had to describe the following figures: metonymia, synechdoche, ironia, anaphora, paronomasia, poliptoton, exclamation, epiphonema, and addubitation.
Lastly, to illustrate the epiphonema, which Fraunce depicted as "a kinde of exclamation when after the discourse ended, we adde some short acclamation, as a conclusion or shutting vp of all in wondring wise" (1588: ch.
12) Shakespeare frequently ends catalogues with symperasma, epitasis, or epiphonema
This has the force of a highly effective rhetorical climax, and is consistent with Quintilian's definition of an epiphonema
, or "explanation attached to the close of a statement or proof by way of climax" (Quint.
Some rhetors--Dupriez and Espy, for example--insist that the epiphonema must be an exclamation; others disagree.
Although Melville may have ended the tale on a pious note to please audience and/or editors (who liked morally edifying literature), Melville's use of epiphonema at the end of "The Bell-Tower," coupled with similar themes covered already by Hawthorne, suggests his indebtedness to Hawthorne for creative inspiration.
Some rhetors insist that the epiphonema
must be an exclamation (that is, must include ecphonesis).