Behavior coding and ethogram
of the Pere David's deer.
Agonistic encounters were quantified using a modified ethogram
to score encounter intensity and determine winners and losers.
of behavioral categories and their respective definitions (adapted from Hwang et al ; Statham et al ) Behavior Description Drinking Drinking water or manipulating the drinker with or without ingestion of water Feeding Head positioned in the feeder or chewing food displaced from the feeder Suckling Massaging or suckling at sow's udder Inactive Motionless and sleeping Agonistic Biting, head-thrusting, ramming, or pushing another piglet Locomotion Any movement including walking, running, scampering, and rolling Excretion Defecating or urinating Other social All other social behaviors not listed above Table 2.
ofpostpartum maternal behavior, adapted from Silverman (1978).
Behavioral units in focal video recordings were scored based on an initial ethogram
Finally, the probabilities of transition were used in the construction of a flux ethogram
that shows the sequence of steps and routes that the pre-courtship behavior in the D.
Data were recorded on hard copy data sheets using an ethogram
of behavior states and reaction events (Table 3).
and diurnal activities of a colony of Artibeus lituratus (Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae).
and natural history of Golden-backed uakaries (Cacajao melanocephalus).
With animals, the universalizing designation of a species comes very close to the findings one would expect from an ethogram
(an inventory of all typical behaviors) of any population of that species.
Watson described the study of personality as being akin to an ethogram
of naturally occurring behavior of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in Southern California waters.