Both behavioral states and events were coded onto ethograms
, sheets of paper for tabulating the observed occurrences of each behavior.
Among captive belugas and bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, ethograms
for social behavior have been successfully developed and applied to link descriptive behavioral events with social (e.
Italian Heavy Draught Horse) foals: In vivo performances and ethograms
He then switched from entomology to ornithology, his primary interest, a transition made easy by an offer from Tinbergen first to undertake post-doctoral studies (1962-65) on species' isolation mechanisms between the large Larus gulls on Walney Island, Lancashire, England, and later to go to Alaska to produce ethograms
of Sabine's gull Xema sabini.
Degree of postoperative pain was evaluated 6 times/d for 4 days by use of 3 methods: an electronic perch for assessment of weight-bearing load differential of the pelvic limbs, 4 numeric rating pain scales for assessment of pain (all of which involved the observer in the same room as the bird), and analysis of video-recorded (observer absent) partial ethograms
for bird activity and posture.
The activity within the territory was observed and recorded in ethograms
, measuring 27 activities for females, 28 for pups, and 26 for males (Table 1).
The exercise uses time-lapse photography in a free, online citizen-science project (CamClickr) developed and maintained by Cornell University's Lab of Ornithology In this lesson, students learn about multiple ways to describe behavior, create ethograms
from observations gathered while participating in CamClickr, and use their ethograms
to generate and test hypotheses about the evolution of observed behaviors.
Similar components described for previously studied squids are noted in the text as follows: components in single quotes are from published ethograms
where each component has been explicitly defined; components in double quotes are from other published works.
are important starting points for ethological research and for understanding the biology and ecology of a wide range of animals (Lehner 1996).
The topology of the ethograms
for the prod test was more complex than for the puff test for all taxa.
For marine mammals, the behavior of which has been studied extensively, the lack of ethograms
cataloging their behaviors is surprising (a complete list of studies that include cetacean ethograms
is given in Appendix A).
Artificially suckled IHDH (Italian Heavy Draught Horse) foals: In vivo performances and ethograms