Many antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including carbamazepine, ethosuximide
, fosphenytoin, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, topiramate, and valproate, are potentially teratogenic.
In terms of treatment and therapeutic interventions, one of the most prominent forms of treatment consists of administering of drugs such as Ethosuximide
(ESM), and Valproate (VAP).
Older/conventional drugs such as PHT, CBZ, valproic acid, and ethosuximide
are commonly used as first-line drugs.
For absence seizure, ethosuximide
and valproic acid are considered first choices.
AEDs included Carbamazepine, Ethosuximide
, Felbamate, Gabapentin, Lacosamide, Lamotrigine, Levetiracetam, Oxcarbazepine, Phenobarbital, Phenytoin, Pregabalin, Primidone, Tiagabine, Topiramate, Valproate, Vigabatrin, and Zonisamide.
, indicated specifically for absence seizures, again was hardly used in these patients, probably because absence seizure was not diagnosed in any of the patients.
Evaluation of gabapentin and ethosuximide
for treatment of acute nonconvulsive seizures following ischemic brain injury in rats.
Phenytoin, benzodiazepines, carbamazepine, Valproic acid ethosuximide
16 Which anti-cancer drugs need TDM?
and valproate are the only antiepileptic drugs with proven efficacy.
The acute effects of systemic (ip) injections of ethosuximide
(ETX), diazepam (DZP) and carbamazepine (CBZ) were examined in 20 F9 FMUSP-rats.
Pharmacotherapy of epilepsy includes phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproate, ethosuximide
, phenobarbital, benzodiazepines, vigabatrin, and gabapentin; however their use is restricted based on certain severe adverse effects such as hypersensitivity, sedation, megaloblastic anaemia, and teratogenic effect .
The AEDs in this category are: levetiracetam, lacosamide, tiagabine, gabapentin, pregabalin, ethosuximide