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Lu [18, 19] used the finite difference method to deal with endoatmospheric optimal guidance and presented a connection mode for the two algorithms of endoatmosphere and exoatmosphere.
In addition to using the closed-loop guidance method derived from optimal control theory, the exoatmosphere guidance of ballistic missiles tends to use Lambert guidance [20-22], which manipulates thrust direction by elliptic orbit equation in accordance with rocket and target positions.
THAAD is a unique and cutting-edge missile defense system that provides persistent defensive capabilities to defeat a wide range of stressing ballistic missiles in either the exoatmosphere (outer space) or the endoatmosphere.
Aegis and THAAD missile intercepts are designed to take place in the exoatmosphere (outer space).
China and US missile defense R&D programs, whether conducted on their own territories or not, could well fly into the exoatmosphere, which is the realm of outer space.
The lessons learned from TERRIER LEAP evolved into the Aegis LEAP Intercept (ALI) Flight Demonstration Project (FDP), the goal of which was to utilize the Aegis Weapons System and Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) to hit a ballistic missile in the exoatmosphere.
Sponsored by ARPA and the Army, this program aimed at producing "a small and lightweight, spin stabilized, optically guided interceptor that achieves hypervelocity direct impact kill of reentry vehicles in the exoatmosphere.
THAAD is the only missile defense system with the operational flexibility to intercept in both the endo-and exoatmospheres to provide versatile capability to the warfighter.