Endophoric uses of atra, atas (anaphoric, discourse-deictic, and cataphoric) nevertheless far outnumber the exophoric
Perhaps the most striking outcome was the moderate near exophoric
shift with the higher addition lens, a finding likely to benefit myopes with near esophorias but cause caution amongst practitioners when fitting near exophores with this modality.
Third, it does not use switch reference systems and has no system of grammatical gender, and so it relies heavily on exophoric
reference and the pragmatic knowledge of the hearer (1998:37-8).
Both were created through "ties" from one or more aspect of the text to another typically endophorically, though there may have been ties to objects in the immediate environment or situation, referred to as exophoric
reference (Halliday & Hasan, 1976).
Esophoric (inward deviation) and exophoric
(outward deviation) eye posture was determined using the Howell card at distance and near.
In informal registers, for example, simple nouns are often used to name things and pronouns to establish endophoric (within-text) or exophoric
(outside-text) references; whereas in more formal registers, nouns of varying complexities--particularly technical nouns, abstract nouns, and expanded noun groups--are often used to construe technicality, generalisation, agency, and density.
72), apart from "new" exophoric
reference, lies in the signaling of the functional relation between John and him:
Purcell-Gates (2001) explains that oral language can have exophoric
external references to meanings outside of the text but written language must have endophoric or within-text references.
Tiriyo and Lavukaleve have what seem at first glance to be rather similar three-term demonstrative systems for exophoric
deixis, with a proximal term, a distal term, and a middle term.
In terms of its linguistic characteristics, typical speech is structurally simple, fragmented, concrete and depends on exophoric
reference; again, typical writing has the opposite characteristics.
In this short story, the referent of the situationally exophoric
"it" is usually the operation which "isn't really an operation at all" and is never specified beyond the ambiguous description of "let[ting] the air in" (SS 275).
Furthermore, it seems that whatever exophoric
reference in low-level interlanguage there is takes the form of well-established collocational items such as the Third World and an eye for the unknown.