The fosfomycin resistance gene fosB3 is located on a transferable, extrachromosomal
circular intermediate in clinical Enterococcus faecium isolates.
The original methods to isolate transgenic strains yield animals harboring extrachromosomal
transgenes, usually called extrachromosomal
A real time PCR platform for the simultaneous quantification of total and extrachromosomal
HIV DNA forms in blood of HIV-1 infected patients.
By 2005, on the systematic analysis of the spacer sequences separating the individual direct repeats showed their extrachromosomal
and phage-associated origins (19,20).
The second is plasmid-mediated resistance, which results from extrachromosomal
elements that encode proteins that disrupt quinoloneenzyme interactions, alter drug metabolism, or increase quinolone efflux.
Animal mtDNA is a small extrachromosomal
genome that is typically 15 to 20 kb in size.
During latency, viral genomes exist as extrachromosomal
episomes in the nucleus and, being largely silenced by host-driven methylation of CpG island motifs, are only able to express a small subset of genes including latent proteins with oncogenic potential and viral miRNAs .
Resistance mechanisms may also be acquired through horizontal gene transfer of mobile genetic elements on plasmids (circular pieces of extrachromosomal
DNA) that carry the resistance gene(s) between bacteria.
The assay most commonly used for SCID-NBS is real-time PCR to measure T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC), extrachromosomal
DNA byproducts of somatic recombination in T cells (10).
Most of these organisms harbor plasmids, small covalently closed circular extrachromosomal
pieces of DNA.
chlorotica without a gene transfer event incorporated into the germ line, including the possibility of extrachromosomal
DNA fragments taken up during feeding and missed in the adult sequencing efforts (Bhattacharya et al.
The system is utilised to generate a clonal root line, clonal root cell line, clonal plant cell line, or clonal plant having a self-replicating, episomal, extrachromosomal
viral RNA vector that carries a polynucleotide of interest.