Nectar is produced through extrafloral
nectaries on the stems below the flowers.
nectaries (EFN) are glands that secrete nectar (solutions of sugars, amino acids, lipids, and other organic compounds) located outside of flowers and have been reported on species belonging to 110 families and 806 genera (Koptur 1992; Marazzi et al.
Leaves alternate, spiral or distichous; petiolate or subsessile, presence of pulvinus; extrafloral
nectaries absent or present, convex, sessile or stipitate, located between the pairs of leaflets or on the petiole; leaflets 1-many pairs, papyraceous to coriaceous, elliptic to oblong, lanceolate to obovate, apex acuminate, rounded to mucronate, base oblique.
The function of extrafloral
nectaries in Opuntia acanthocarpa (Cactaceae).
queenslandiae, and other authors have described features considered common in the genus such as white or red latex, nonarticulated laticifers, extrafloral
nectaries, liana habit with tendril-like climbing stems, mushroom-shaped androecia, and large fruits (Rudall, 1994a, b; Gillespie, 1997; Gillespie and Ambruster, 1997).
Additionally, both females and males can also collect honeydew from Hemiptera or sweet exudates from extrafloral
nectaries as the main article in their diets (Brothers, 1989).
Some ecological notes were observed during this study, such as the high rates of bee- and insect- visitation on FHs and the extrafloral
nectar on the leaves.
En este estudio se muestran evidencias de una respuesta de reclutamiento diferencial de Pheidole bilimeki a la estimulacion gustativa por carbohidratos que son comunes en fuentes nutricionales de origen floral, extrafloral
o proveniente de afidos (Hendrix et al.
Response of ants to the leafhopper Dalbulus quinquenolalus DeLong & Nault (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and extrafloral
nectarines following fire.
Traits of Columnea species associated with ornithophilous pollination are: 1) larger leaf with extrafloral
marks or red indument that functions as a secondary and lasting attractant for the birds (Jones & Rich 1972; Kastinger & Weber 2000; G.
The flower produces nectar in a nectary disk surrounding the ovary and in a couple of extrafloral
nectaries on both sides of the pedicel.
The Myrmecophillous species display morphological modifications associated with ant mutualism, such as domatia, extrafloral
nectaries, and leaflet tips that provide food for the ants.