Chemla, who jointly led the study with physics professor Ido Golding, further says that optical traps use lasers to confine individual cells without impeding their rotation or the movement of their flagella
in Seika, Japan, and his colleagues have obtained high-resolution, X-ray fiber diffraction patterns of the three-dimensional structure of bacterial flagella
Each of the surface cells has two hair-like appendages known as flagella
, whose beating propels the colony through the fluid and simultaneously makes them spin about an axis, miraculously held together only by the fluid flows they create.
Their molecule may lead to greater understanding of the biological motors that exist in living organisms, such as the ones that power flagella
(SN: 2/7/98, p.
Afzelius had noticed that the men's sperm had defective flagella
, the whiplike tails that are essentially modified cilia.
Peer Fischer of The Rowland Institute at Harvard University has revealed that the nanopropellers will mimic the corkscrew motion of flagella
, the structures some bacteria use to swim through water.
reported using optical tweezers to probe the physical properties of "mechanoenzymes," proteins responsible for cellular movements such as the rotary motions of flagella
, which propel bacteria.
Some one-celled organisms are equipped with appendages like cilia and flagella
that propel them through solutions.
Daughter cells might then evolve to carry out specific tasks for the mother cell, in a scenario of flagella
in real microorganisms.
As the microbes propel themselves along with their whip-like flagella
, Earth's magnetic field turns them toward the poles.
Previously, the smallest molecular motors scientists had studied were those that drive bacterial flagella
In such cases, the tails - stiff, helical flagella
that resemble elongated corkscrews - hook on to a primitive driveshaft, which is spun by what biologists call a "rotary engine.