9k), which has been reworked into a bifacial flake tool after loss of the distal end as a result of impact fracture.
Lower Upper Recent Artifact types (C1) (C2) (C3) NA (1) Total Debitage 1140 3394 25 296 4855 Faunal remains 456 488 2 77 1023 Fire-cracked rock 106 13 1 4 124 Flake tool 9 25 0 2 36 Microblade 0 34 0 2 36 Retouched flake 9 18 0 0 27 Biface 8 17 0 0 25 Core 3 16 0 1 20 Feature stone 13 1 0 1 15 Cobble 1 1 0 0 2 Floral remains 0 1 0 0 1 Total 1745 4008 28 383 6164 (1) NA = not assigned.
2) evidence for grindinguse; (3) crushing anviluse (either primary or secondary) or (4) re-use as a flake tool.
HAMMER TYPE CLASSIFICATION: 1A= unmodified single end use as hammer; 1Aa=double end use (1 end >); 1B=use of side pebble as hammer for crushing/or as mallet; 1C=broken tip of hammer (or small pebble) re-used as hand-held crushing/pounding tool around edges; 1D= flake tool re-use (as chisel etc); 1E= use/re-use of cobble surface as anvil stone (for crushing); 1F= pecking stone for notching (typically lump quartz)
Another type of specialised skin-working flake tool with deliberately shaped sharp points/edges appeared in late Holocene assemblages from three islands: Mussau, Reef Santa Cruz and Vanuatu.
Eleven flake tools and two stemmed tools used for skinworking were identified (Table 1).
But the Armenian site suggests that multiple groups figured out how to create the flake tools
Unlike the French assemblages --that are centuries older to boot--, in which it is true that flakes as well as blades and bladelets are sometimes important as tool blanks, the Miron ones have large quantities of flakes and flake tools
on local, non-flint raw materials and variable quantities of laminar and especially lamellar products on fine-grain, non-local flints.
The easy-to-manufacture tools - also known as microliths - were a vast improvement over larger stone flake tools
used previously, according to Michael Petraglia, an archaeologist at the University of Oxford, UK, who led the study.
Limestone pebbles were used to make chopping tools, flint for the modification of cores, flakes, and flake tools
, and basalt mainly for the production of bifaced hand axes and cleavers.
Gravers are also flake tools
that have been modified by simple retouch to form a protrusion on a thicker part of the flake that is suitable for scraping or gouging.
There was no discernable pattern of distribution of artefact type or material within the site except that the density of flake tools
was higher in the fill of the three large post holes than elsewhere.