Central to Gorey's approach is her emphasis on focalization
and focalizors, both of which are prone to the manipulation of voice.
as a character is embedded within his focalization
as the narrator, the distinction of which lies in the tense usage: the former is indicated by the past tense, while the latter is indicated by the present tense.
In her 2001 book, Ryan discusses a number of narrative strategies that facilitate the reader's transportation onto the scene, such as focalization
, scenic narration (vs.
The ambivalent definition of the focalizer is especially pronounced during the expression of intimate experiences and cognitive insights when it seems that focalization
is not flowing through the persona, but rather that the focalizer is the narrator himself or that the reader is participating in a sort of two-layered double focalization
Puzzles and Problems for the Theory of Focalization
,' The Living Handbook of Narratology, <http://www.
In examining Anne's listening as the novel's primary mode of focalization
, I track Anne's transition from a passive detachment to an active, critical engagement with the world around her through the narrative repercussions of her ingestion, evaluation, and, finally, creation of sound.
At regional, sub-regional and national level, workshops could be organized to share early experiences on project prioritization and formulation with the GCF and on innovative financial instruments, policy and scheme (such as risk transfer mechanisms, public private partnerships, focalization
of subsidies, results-based payments, etc.
Childhood is accorded by Zimbabwean writers represented in this book as a central role in social, political, and cultural concerns by being depicted not only as a matter of focalization
and characterization, but as a tool for the construction of a wide range of culturally and historically specific c sets of ideas and philosophies.
Joyce's hybrid verse-form can be seen on the page at various points throughout Ulysses, (52) and it is a variable focalization
characterized by the indistinct shifts between free indirect discourse, character focalizers, and external focalization
conveying actions and movement in the storyworld.
Their topics include a tentative roadmap to theorizing narrative (un)reliability, the performative power of unreliable narration and focalization
in drama and theater: conceptualizing the specificity of dramatic unreliability, reality effect and unreliable narration in television news, unreliable narration in law courts, and the struggle for reliable dream reporting and the unreliability of dream reports.
TR technique , , which possesses the focalization
characteristic that is equivalent to the diversity gain, can provide the solution for mentioned problems.
, Nash contends, is the key technique used in service of this ethics of fair play and, beginning with the introduction of Harriet Vane in the fifth Lord Peter Wimsey novel, Strong Poison, focalization
encourages the reader not only to anticipate the mystery's solution, but also to pay attention to the ways in which the romance plot unfolds.