His letter of resignation addressed to no one read in part: 'While other parties have purged themselves of the arbitrariness and unconstitutionality that led to fractionalisation
, the All Progressives Congress has adopted those same practices and even gone beyond them to institute a regime of a draconian clampdown on all forms of democracy within the party and the government it produced.
Empirical research shows that capitalist countries with substantial ethno-linguistic fractionalisation
tend to redistribute less than countries with little fractionalisation
(Sturm and de Haan, 2015).
Be it the lender criteria, fractionalisation
of loans, reverse auction, we are now creating benchmarks for others to follow and setting the norms for the sector.
It seems appropriate in this study to employ the ethnic fractionalisation
index, although it does not capture tribalism or clan structures in particular.
We see male dominance in all the societies when it comes to religion, ethnic, and linguistic fractionalisation
The observation of one of their most intriguing properties -- electron splitting, or fractionalisation
-- in real materials is a breakthrough.
However, there is much more than fractionalisation
does not say anything about culture itself.
The study has also examined other variables, mainly ethnic fractionalisation
and population number, and their correlation with the prevalence of non-state conflicts.
The report confirms that a fractured Egyptian elite has been a chronic predicament in Egyptian politics for years; the elite fractionalisation
indicator has not dipped below 8 since 2005, but rather reached a worrying peak of 9.
Martin Stefek outlines in this issue the case of the party Programme by historically accounting the phases of the Czechoslovak reform process highlighting the creeping in of "differentiation and fractionalisation
within the Czechoslovak communist leadership" and bringing to light precious archival material that stood at the basis of transition towards democracy.
The country has a high degree of ethnic and religious fractionalisation
, making infighting hard to contain.
Hodler, Roland, and David Knight (2012), "Ethnic Fractionalisation
and Aid Effectiveness," Journal of African Economies 21(1): 65-93.