The report confirms that a fractured Egyptian elite has been a chronic predicament in Egyptian politics for years; the elite fractionalisation
indicator has not dipped below 8 since 2005, but rather reached a worrying peak of 9.
Martin Stefek outlines in this issue the case of the party Programme by historically accounting the phases of the Czechoslovak reform process highlighting the creeping in of "differentiation and fractionalisation
within the Czechoslovak communist leadership" and bringing to light precious archival material that stood at the basis of transition towards democracy.
Thus, post-colonial Nigeria grappled with the question of statehood in the midst of ethnic fractionalisation
First, the comprehensive nature of the health issues included in the High-Level Panel's Report did not allow for fractionalisation
in the global health community to emerge at this early negotiation phase:
The country has a high degree of ethnic and religious fractionalisation
, making infighting hard to contain.
Two new proposals for the industry were also launched at the event: a milk price formula put forward by NFU Scotland and plans for a fractionalisation
plant, suggested by Farmers for Action chairman David Handley.
These included the intervention of the Save Nigeria Group (SNG); fractionalisation
within the PDP, the FEC and the NA, for example the activities of the National Interest Group (NIG) in the NA; and the ACF"s policy summersault on the matter.
Delhey and Newton (2005) claim that Protestantism and ethnic fractionalisation
together explain 46 per cent of the variance in trust across countries.
Other variables included as controls in all regressions: UK legal origin, number of tiers of sub-national government, government consumption, openness, number of procedures needed to open business, number of days needed to enforce contract, Freedom House index of political and civil rights, ethnical and religious fractionalisation
There were several blatant cases of brazen fractionalisation
, led by a gentleman trading as Stuart Trevaskis, who I rather hope doesn't share with me the Cornish heritage his name suggests, who was offering one-seventh the odds to his punters.
Accountability Law and Order Average score 1960-1995 Ethnic Various years (1983 to 2001) fractionalisation
Linguistic Various years (1983 to 2001) fractionalisation
Gini In logs, average for the period 1980-1997 or earliest available data thereafter.
To measure the degree of electoral contestation, we use a fractionalisation
), which measures the likelihood that two legislators chosen at random belong to different political parties.