is used in both stages of the model.
2015: Income inequality, capitalism, and ethno-linguistic fractionalization
2003) cultural diversity index, and it was ranked even lower on ethnic fractionalization
(161 out of 215), linguistic fractionalization
(137 out of 215) or religious fractionalization
(162 out of 215) indexes.
variables, ethnic fractionalization
This result supports the work referenced earlier--namely, that fractionalization
reduces the willingness of the voting public to spend.
Empirical work also shows that religious and linguistic fractionalization
correlate positively with violence (Fearon 2003; Fearon and Laitin 2003; Collier and Hoeffler 2004), thereby increasing the likelihood of civil war (Bodea and Elbadawi 2007) and genocide (Easterly 2001).
suggests that not only is there strong demand, but there's also opportunity for institutional investment and professionalization to accelerate the sector's growth.
This is explained through the concept of communist exit, fractionalization
of the opposition, the two-turnover test, and the presence of party dominance (pp.
At the national level, policymakers suggest many factors are critical to democratic transitions; however, the positive factors of economics, education, and cultural values, as well as the negative factor of fractionalization
continue to top the list.
To facilitate this empirical investigation, categorized variables have been used, namely: (a) demographical variables, (b) fractionalization
variables, (c) political variables, and (d) governance and institutional variables.
These variables include ethnolinguistic fractionalization
(21) (ETHNOL1G), Protestant fractionalization
(PROTESTANT), Catholic fractionalization
(CATHOLIC), Muslim fractionalization
(MUSLIM), other religious fractionalization
(OTHER), a geographical proxy for climate (LATITUDE), and a geographical predisposition to external trade (22) (TRADE).
Altogether, they found a significant link between climate disasters and the outbreak of violent conflict specifically in countries with high degrees of ethnic fractionalization
," Harvey writes.