Filipovic introduces the process of transmorphemization, which he proposes to occur in three stages: (1) zero transmorphemization, when a lexeme is borrowed as a free morpheme
without any bound morphemes (English bridge [right arrow] Croatian bridz), (2) compromise transmorphemization, "when a loan keeps a final bound morpheme that does not conform to the borrowing language's morphological system" (English farm-er [right arrow] Croatian farm-er), and (3) complete transmorphemization, when "a donor language bound morpheme which does not conform to the morphological system of the borrowing language is replaced by a borrowing-language bound morpheme (suffix) with the same function.
A free morpheme
is commonly referred to as a base word and is the smallest unit of meaning that can stand alone, such as shout and march.
The teacher thinks aloud, making comments such as, 'The word catchment is made up of a free morpheme
(catch) and a bound morpheme (ment)'.
We used two function words: 'to'ela-[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]', which is a free morpheme
, and 'the'--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], which is a bound morpheme, added as a prefix).
The Free Morpheme
Constraint claims that code switching is present between a bound and a lexical form unless the latter has been phonologically integrated into the language of the bound morpheme (Sankoff and Poplack 1981: 5).
Paradis and Genesee (1996) examined one of the grammatical constraints proposed by Poplack (1980) for adult code-switching, namely the Free Morpheme
Franklyn is a bi-syllabic name, consisting of a free morpheme
, "Frank," and a suffix, "lyn," and enjoys a rich cultural heritage through its etymology.
Together with the equivalence constraint, Poplack (1980: 585) states that there is a second constraint pertaining to switching, the "free morpheme
constraint" which predicts that bound morphemes cannot be transferred unless either the bound morpheme or the free morpheme
to which it is affixed is phonologically integrated according to the phonological features of the other language.
They are grouped into free morphemes
(root words) that can stand on their own; the bound morphemes that cannot stand on their own, and the zero morphemes--those unseen reflections in a word where no inflectional essence is seen, like in the changing of some verbs into nouns in English language.
carrot, which is monomorphemic but contains two free morphemes
, car and rot and, thus, has the appearance of a compound) or an orthographically-related word (e.