Whereas some reports have associated geophagia
with anaemia and low iron status [14,19,29], others suggest geophagia
may help meet iron and other essential minerals need [9,30,31].
The anthropologist John Hunter describes geophagia
as "a nearly universal cross-cultural phenomenon," found "in the Mediterranean world of Roman and later times, in medieval western Europe, in present-day Iran, India, China, and extensively in the tropical peasant world of Indonesia, Oceania, and Africa": "Geophagy in Africa and the United States: A Culture-Nutrition Hypothesis," Geographical Review 63.
3), (4), (6) Although not as common as geophagia
, other forms of pica include eating paint chips (plumbophagia), ice/freezer frost (pagophagia), laundry starch (amylophagia) and burnt matches (cautopyreiophagia), just to name a few.
As the editors note, 'the various chapters on geophagia
, despite their individual insights, highlight the fact that specific instances of earth-eating have yet to be investigated in a sustained, integrated and interdisciplinary manner' (p.
in Turkey: Iron and zinc absorption studies and response to treatment with zinc in geophagia
The risk of zinc deficiency (moderate or severe) is substantially increased by conditioning factors, such as, intestinal malabsorption, catabolic illness, alcoholism, cirrhosis, hemolytic anemias, renal failure, certain, medications (diuretics, steroids and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors), blood loss by parasitic infestations, geophagia
and an excessive loss of zinc due to sweating .
We try to show how in the logic of a strategy of sustainable development, the shift from a geophagia
approach to a geosophic approach to development is the necessary consequence when we have to rely on various development disequilibria in order to develop a policy whose principles are based on a reasoned use and consumption of space.
Contributors survey the evidence to find who consumes the inedible, then focus on cultural perceptions of food and non-food, human identity in consumption, pica behavior, nutritive aspects of geophagia
and its biological consequences, human zinc deficiency, lime as a nutritive element, non-human primate and human consumption of materials with low nutritional value, non-foods in famine, marginalized practices such as eating garbage, cannibalism as a myth and rarity, family influence and socialization, waste products used in alcoholic beverages, and the roles of cats, insects, and snot in cultured eating.
Common examples include geophagia
(eating clay or dirt) and pagophagia (eating ice).
is prevalent in this age group (Stagno et al.
Our psychologist told us he had seen many cases of stress-induced geophagia
(intentional ingestion of soil/sand, clay blocks and mud) is defined as a form of pica, and has been known for centuries.