Expanding drainage areas offer decreased gradients, more habitat complexities, and higher fish diversity to serve as glochidia
hosts (Vannote et al.
Every spring since 2000, gravid Higgins eye females have been collected in the wild, and about 9,000 walleye (Sander vitreus vitreus), largemouth bass, and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) have been infested with mussel larvae or glochidia
, which parasitize the fish until they are ready to survive and grow on their own.
This, of course, makes conception difficult, but for any resulting larvae to survive is near impossible as these larvae - or glochidia
- have to attach themselves to the gills of passing salmon.
Weather conditions prevented data collection in the spring and, therefore, no conclusions could be drawn about the relationship between aggregation and glochidia
The mussel fauna, past, present, and future, of Sulfur Fork Creek and lower Red River, Tennessee, and laboratory transformation of glochidia
Harvesting is not permitted in these "no-take" areas with the intention that they will provide adult unionids producing glochidia
for dispersal by fish hosts to nonprotected areas.
This encompasses spawning and glochidia
release times for some mussel species, including the endangered shiny pigtoe (Fusconaia cor), slabside pearlymussel (Lexingtonia dolabelloides), a candidate species for federal protection, the pheasantshell (Actinonaias pectorosa), and rainbow mussel (Villosa iris).
temporarily attach to fish, allowing mussels to distribute themselves upstream and downstream and among watersheds.
Those measures include genetic studies, mussel culture at the Genoa National Fish Hatchery, culture in cages in the Upper Mississippi River and tributaries, stocking juvenile mussels, relocating adults, stocking fish inoculated with glochidia
(parasitic mussel larvae), cleaning and stockpiling adult mussels, and survey/monitoring activities.
The mussel Pyganodon grandis was reported from the Ohio & Erie Canal by early and recent workers despite its highest glochidia
release in winter, when canals were plagued with ice.
METAMORPHOSIS OF UTTERBACKIA IMBICILIS GLOCHIDIA
ON BLUEGILL SUNFISH IN STREAM WATER VERSUS CONTROL WATER.
At mussel refuges, the risk to introduce pathogens is compounded by the need for host fishes for glochidia