Pertinent problems are those with the glossopharyngeal
and vagus nerves, which are responsible for innervating the pharynx and larynx and permit swallowing to occur.
Fischer et al, reported a case of successful treatment of painful and progressive left-sided glossopharyngeal
neuralgia, which had been unsuccessfully treated with standard medication therapy.
Cranial nerve examination including facial, trigeminal, and glossopharyngeal
nerves was normal.
However, oropharyngeal involvement (secondary glossopharyngeal
and hypoglossal nerve palsy) mostly accompanies MS, though it is sometimes overlooked (6).
1-3) Anatomically, these bony structures can compress or irritate the surrounding neurovascular soft-tissues in the neck, namely the internal carotid artery and the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal
, and vagus nerves.
The complete course of second branchial fistula begins near the anterior border of the SCM, tracks superiorly and laterally to the common carotid artery, passes medially between the external and internal carotid arteries, moves lateral and superior to the glossopharyngeal
and hypoglossal nerves, and penetrates the middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle to open into the tonsillar fossa.
Patient information regarding the localisation of a foreign body in this location is extremely vague, because branches of the glossopharyngeal
and vagus nerves much less densely innervate the upper oesophagus.
Sensory inputs to these areas activate the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve as well as the pharyngeal branch of the glossopharyngeal
nerve (Bolser, Pitts, Davenport, & Morris, 2015), triggering the pharyngeal swallow response.
Epidemiology and clinical features of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia and glossopharyngeal
neuralgia: similarities and differences, Rochester, Minnesota, 1945-1984.
The nonpharmacological methods include smooth and gentle intubation with a shorter duration of laryngoscopy, use of LMA8 and blocking glossopharyngeal
and superior laryngeal nerves.
Involuntary ventilatory rate is determined by pH-sensing central chemoreceptors of the surface of medlla oblougata and by oxygen- and carbon dioxide-sensing peripheral chemoreceptors, with the impulse transferred to the glossopharyngeal
nerve (nervus IX) and the vagus nerve (nerves X).
repeated fainting and falling), which are believed to be associated with carotid sinus nerve or Hering's nerve, in turn, a branch of the glossopharyngeal
nerve, if disappear after the surgical removal of the tumor, constitute a unique case.