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As glucose is the main cellular fuel substrate, peripheral tissues must undergo a shift from glucose to fatty acid oxidation and gluconeogenetic precursors to be delivered from muscle to the liver for glucose synthesis.
Furthermore, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which is the bioactive ingredient in green tea, was also shown to decrease glucose production in the liver and gluconeogenetic gene expression via a ROS-AMPK pathway (Collins et al.
In addition to non-esterified fatty acids, lipolysis also generates glycerol, which can be converted into glucose in the gluconeogenetic process (15,17) (Fig.