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On other hand, since insulin suppresses gluconeogenic genes and ALT is a gluconeogenic enzyme, in the course of diabetes, insulin signaling is impaired and ALT production is increased (Vozarova et al.
Various mechanisms are involved in inducing insulin resistance by upregulating inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor - [alpha] (TNF - [alpha]), hypophosphorylating IRS - 1 and IRS - 2, phosphorylating Akt and up - regulating gluconeogenic genes7.
S-adenosylmethionine-dependent protein methylation is required for expression of selenoprotein p and gluconeogenic enzymes in HepG2 human hepatocytes.
G6PC, a critical enzyme for providing glucose during starvation and diabetes [24], is involved in the terminal step in gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic pathways and catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) to glucose and inorganic phosphate.
Adiponectin is a protein which inhibits the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes and the rate of glucose production in the liver.
Low protein intake is associated with reduced hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
Furthermore, adiponectin has insulin sensitizing effect which is attributed primarly to its activation of AMPK that leads to expression of gluconeogenic enzymes that suppress the hepatic glucose production in addition to enhancing fatty acids oxidation and energy dissipation, which in turn decreases lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle causing an increase in insulin sensitivity [40].
Hypoglycaemic activity of Coccinia indica and Momordica charantia in diabetic rats: depression of the hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and elevation of both liver and red-cell shunt enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.
The increase in the RER and decrease in peak blood lactate observed during Trial-3 suggests a higher contribution of energy coming from gluconeogenic processes.
Lactate can only be metabolized in the presence of the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)[10] Figure 3 back to pyruvate, which then enters the gluconeogenic pathway or enters the mitochondria to be metabolized to acetyl CoA by the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH).
Part of glycerol can be fermented with propionate, in the rumen, which is, in turn, metabolized with oxaloacetate in the liver through the Krebs cycle, and can be used to for glucose through the gluconeogenic via (LAGE et al.