The solubilisation activity is mostly related to the production of organic anions, so the production of Gluconic acid
was confirmed by HPLC.
The acid is different from the chelating agent and is selected from the group consisting of glycolic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, caproic acid, gluconic acid
, itaconic acid, trichloroacetic acid, benzoic acid, urea hydrochloride, and combinations thereof.
and production and phosphate solubilization by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum spp.
15] investigated the leaching kinetics of calcined magnesite in gluconic acid
solutions and it was found that the dissolution rate was controlled by chemical reaction.
However, due to environmental & ecological effects of EDTA, NTA & other classical chelating agents, consumers are shifting their focus towards biodegradable chelating agents such as gluconic acid
& glucoheptonic acids.
In presense of molecular oxygen, GOx catalyses the oxidation of glucose into gluconic acid
and hydrogen peroxide as in the reaction as given below:
Besides its use in the production of ethanol, it provides asparaginase, levan, sorbitol (Ernandes, Boscolo, & Cruz, 2010) and gluconic acid
(Silveira et al.
The antimicrobial activity of bee honey is related to many agents and components in it such as, high osmolarity due to the large amounts and high concentrations of carbohydrates which reached approximately to 95% of the dry weight of it  that cause shrinkage disruption of the microbial cell wall , its low pH because of the presence organic acids especially gluconic acid
, hydrogen peroxide and non- hydrogen peroxide activities as well as lysozyme, inhibine  and other aromatic and volatile compounds .
Much of the therapeutic properties of honey are due to the high sugar concentration and the resulting osmotic effect , low PH and acidity , and due to hydrogen peroxide generated from the oxidative conversion of glucose to gluconic acid
by glucose oxidase upon dilution .
The latter served as a substrate for the enzyme glucose oxidase in a second step, which yielded gluconic acid
and hydrogen peroxide.
Some examples of carboxylic acids include acetic acid, formic acid, gluconic acid
, and propionic acid.
The results revealed that there is no only factor in the P-solubilization, instead there are a complex of factors interact with each other in P-solubilization process as the consumption of glucose (converted into gluconic acid
after oxidation and associated with drop in pH), organic and inorganic nitrogen sources (associated with the fall in pH), different growth conditions and inoculum size could affect the metabolism of the strain and change the organic acid secretion pattern and ultimately resulted in variable P-solubilization (7).